Form 424B4
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)
Registration No. 333-249648

Prospectus

46,600,000 Shares

 

LOGO

Sotera Health Company

Common Stock

 

 

This is the initial public offering of shares of common stock of Sotera Health Company.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. The initial public offering price of the common stock is $23.00 per share. Our common stock has been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “SHC.”

After the completion of this offering, investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus LLC and investment funds and entities affiliated with GTCR, LLC together will own approximately 71.4% of the voting power of our common stock, assuming that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares. As a result, we may be considered a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards, and therefore we expect to also qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. See “Management and Board of Directors.”

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 22 to read about factors you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

     Per share      Total  

Initial public offering price

   $ 23.00      $ 1,071,800,000  

Underwriting discounts

   $ 1.3225      $ 61,628,500  

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $ 21.6775      $ 1,010,171,500  

 

(1)

We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain expenses in connection with this offering. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 6,990,000 additional shares of common stock at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount for a period of 30 days after the date of this prospectus.

Delivery of the shares of common stock will be made on or about November 24, 2020.

 

J.P. Morgan   Credit Suisse    Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC   

Jefferies

 

Barclays    Citigroup    RBC Capital Markets

 

BNP PARIBAS               KeyBanc Capital Markets    Citizens Capital Markets            ING

 

Academy Securities

   Loop Capital
Markets
   Penserra
Securities LLC
   Siebert Williams
Shank
   Tigress Financial
Partners

Prospectus dated November 19, 2020.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     22  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     54  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     56  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     57  

CAPITALIZATION

     58  

DILUTION

     59  

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     60  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

     63  

BUSINESS

     92  

MANAGEMENT AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS

     124  

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

     134  

CORPORATE REORGANIZATION

     149  

PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

     153  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     156  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     164  

DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN INDEBTEDNESS

     170  

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

     175  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     177  

UNDERWRITING (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)

     179  

LEGAL MATTERS

     187  

EXPERTS

     187  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     188  

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     F-1  

Through and including December 14, 2020 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf that we have referred you to. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use with respect to this offering. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you or any representation that others may make to you. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state, country or other jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the applicable document regardless of its time of delivery or the time of any sales of our common stock. Our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations may have changed since the date of the applicable document. Information contained in our web site does not constitute part of this prospectus.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our common stock. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restriction as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to those jurisdictions.

 

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Certain Trademarks, Service Marks and Trade Names

We own or otherwise have rights to the trademarks, service marks and trade names, including those mentioned in this prospectus, used in conjunction with the marketing and sale of our products and services. This prospectus includes trademarks, service marks and trade names, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws and are our property and/or the property of our subsidiaries. This prospectus may also contain trademarks, service marks and trade names of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies. Solely for convenience, trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ®, , or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor, to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.

Market, Industry and Other Data

Historical and current market data used throughout this prospectus were obtained from internal company analyses, consultants’ reports and industry publications. Industry surveys and publications generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. This information involves many assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates and information. We have not independently verified this market data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding any industry or similar data presented herein, such data involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus.

 

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SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information about our company and this offering that is included elsewhere in this prospectus in greater detail. It does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. For a more comprehensive understanding of our company and this offering, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information presented under the heading “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Information,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.

In this prospectus, unless we indicate otherwise or the context requires, “Sotera Health,” “Sotera Health Company,” “our company,” “the company,” “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” refer to Sotera Health Company and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Our Company

Overview

 

 

LOGO

We are a leading global provider of mission-critical sterilization and lab testing and advisory services to the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We are driven by our mission: Safeguarding Global Health®. We



 

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provide end-to-end sterilization as well as microbiological and analytical lab testing and advisory services to help ensure that medical, pharmaceutical and food products are safe for healthcare practitioners, patients and consumers in the United States and around the world. Our customers include more than 40 of the top 50 medical device companies and eight of the top ten global pharmaceutical companies (based on revenue). Our services are an essential aspect of our customers’ manufacturing process and supply chains, helping to ensure sterilized medical products reach healthcare practitioners and patients. Most of these services are necessary for our customers to satisfy applicable government requirements. We give our customers confidence that their products meet regulatory, safety and effectiveness requirements. With a combined tenure across our businesses of nearly 200 years and our industry-recognized scientific and technological expertise, we help to ensure the safety of millions of patients and healthcare practitioners around the world every year. Across our 63 facilities worldwide, we have nearly 2,900 employees who are dedicated to safety and quality. We are a trusted partner to more than 5,800 customers in over 50 countries.

Our Businesses

We serve our customers throughout their product lifecycles, from product design to manufacturing and delivery, helping to ensure the sterility, effectiveness and safety of their products for the end user. We operate across two core businesses: sterilization services and lab services. Each of our businesses has a long-standing record and is a leader in its respective market, supported and connected by our core capabilities including deep end market, regulatory, technical and logistics expertise. The combination of Sterigenics, our terminal sterilization business, and Nordion, our Cobalt-60 (“Co-60”) supply business, makes us the only vertically integrated global gamma sterilization provider in the sterilization industry. This provides us with additional insights and allows us to better serve our customers.

 

   

Sterilization Services (our Sterigenics and Nordion brands):

 

   

Under our Sterigenics brand, we provide outsourced terminal sterilization and irradiation services for the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and advanced applications markets. Terminal sterilization is the process of sterilizing a product in its final packaging. It is an essential, and often government-mandated, step in the manufacturing process of healthcare products before they are shipped to end-users. These products include medical protective barriers, including personal protective equipment (“PPE”), procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters, wound care products, laboratory products and pharmaceuticals. We offer our customers a complete range of outsourced terminal sterilization services, primarily using the three major sterilization technologies: gamma irradiation, ethylene oxide (“EO”) processing and electron beam (“E-beam”) irradiation.

 

   

Gamma irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to gamma rays emitted by Co-60. Gamma rays can penetrate even dense materials to kill microbes. Gamma is particularly effective at sterilizing high-density medical products such as sutures, surgical tools and stents.

 

   

EO processing: A gas sterilization process in which pallets of packaged goods are loaded into a secure chamber that is then injected with EO gas to penetrate the packaging. EO is the most widely used gaseous sterilization agent in the world and has been in use for nearly 90 years. The broad application to a range of medical devices is attributed to the fact that EO is compatible with many materials that cannot tolerate or are degraded by radiation or moist heat sterilization. For this reason, it is commonly the only method available to safely and effectively sterilize procedure kits, PPE and many devices used in cardiac procedures.

 

   

E-beam irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to machine-generated radiation in the form of a stream of electrons. E-beam is particularly effective for low density homogenous products such as glass labware. Several medical devices products also rely on E-beam as an effective form of sterilization, including certain types of syringes. In addition to medical device



 

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sterilization, E-beam can also be used as an effective technology for materials modification, such as the crosslinking of certain polymers or for enriching the color of gemstones.

 

   

Under our Nordion brand, we are the leading global provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are key components to the gamma sterilization process. Co-60 is a radioactive isotope that is needed by medical device manufacturers and sterilizers including Sterigenics. Co-60 decays and must be replaced over time to produce the desired level of irradiation. We have the most comprehensive access to nuclear power reactor operators around the world which are able to produce Co-60. The capabilities that we provide to Nordion’s customers include handling and processing of Co-60, recycling of depleted sources and global logistics enabled by our licensed container fleet. We are integral to our customers’ operations due to highly coordinated and complex installation processes. In addition, under our Nordion brand, we are a leading supplier of Co-60 sources for stereotactic radiosurgery devices (such as the Gamma Knife®), which are used for certain oncology applications.

 

   

Lab Services (our Nelson Labs brand):

 

   

Under our Nelson Labs brand, we are a global leader in outsourced microbiological and analytical chemistry testing and advisory services for the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We provide our customers mission-critical lab testing services, which assess the product quality, effectiveness, patient safety and end-to-end sterility of products. These services are necessary for our customers’ regulatory approvals, product releases and ongoing product performance evaluations.

 

   

Microbiology testing services help to identify and measure the potential risks of microbes to a product and ensure that the quality of the products is maintained.

 

   

Analytical chemistry lab testing is also a critical part of the pharmaceutical drug and medical device development and manufacturing process. This testing provides first-hand information as to the content, quality and safety of raw materials, intermediates and finished products.

 

   

We also provide expert advisory services to aid customers in navigating the regulatory requirements applicable throughout the product lifecycle.

Nelson Labs serves over 3,800 customers across 13 facilities in the United States, Mexico, Asia and Europe. We have a comprehensive array of over 800 laboratory tests supporting our customers from initial product development and sterilization validation, through regulatory approval and ongoing product testing for sterility, safety and quality assurance. Our customers rely on our expertise in their industries to get their medical device and pharmaceutical products to market.

 

   

Medical device lab testing services include: microbiology, biocompatibility and toxicology assessments, material characterization, sterilization validation, sterility assurance, packaging validation and distribution simulation, reprocessing validations, facility and process validation and performance validation and verification of PPE barriers and material.

 

   

Pharmaceutical lab testing services include: microbiology, biocompatibility and toxicology assessments, extractables and leachables evaluations of pharmaceutical containers, sterilization validation, sterility assurance, packaging validation and distribution simulation and facility and process validation.

Nelson Labs is highly complementary to our sterilization services business. In particular, microbiological testing validates the configuration and effectiveness of the sterilization process.

We believe that our sterilization service offerings, our Co-60 supply capabilities and the broad capabilities of our lab services business give us unique insights and technical expertise to serve the mission-critical needs of medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers. We believe these provide us with a competitive advantage over other outsourced sterilization and lab testing service providers.



 

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Our Markets and Customers

Medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers often outsource their sterilization and lab services needs, as the technical and regulatory expertise and infrastructure required to establish those capabilities in-house can result in significant cost and resource burden.

We estimate that the total global addressable market for terminal sterilization and outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing was approximately $33 billion in 2019. Global terminal sterilization accounted for $3 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019. Global outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing services accounted for approximately $29 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019, with approximately $3 billion attributable to medical devices and approximately $26 billion attributable to pharmaceuticals. We believe the following secular trends underpin increasing demand for medical devices and pharmaceuticals: an aging population, increased access to, and demand for, healthcare services globally, growth in healthcare R&D spending and innovation, intensifying regulatory requirements and heightened focus on personal safety. As a service provider to manufacturers, we are not directly exposed to risks associated with reimbursement by public or private payors. We expect that increasing utilization of medical devices, including the equipment and consumables that we sterilize and test, expansion in pharmaceutical development and a growing focus on microbial decontamination (including viruses) will continue to drive growth in our business and provide us the opportunity to expand within our markets.

Our customers depend upon the end-to-end services we provide throughout the lifecycle of their products, from research and development, to product manufacturing and sterilization, as well as ongoing quality control. We often maintain long-term relationships with our customers, which average over a decade across our top 25 customers in 2019. We also benefit from minimal customer concentration, as no single customer accounted for more than 4% of our total revenues in 2019. Given the critical nature of our services, a significant portion of our revenues is supported by multi-year contracts. More than 90% of our sterilization services revenues in each of the year ended December 31, 2019 and the nine months ended September 30, 2020 were from customers under multi-year contracts. The quality of our service offerings is evidenced by close to 100% renewal rates of our top ten sterilization services customers in 2019 over the past five years. Most of our services are government-mandated and mission-critical, and sterilization services generally represent a small fraction of the total end product cost of medical devices.

Our Network and Expertise

All of the services we provide are highly regulated and require significant technical expertise. To manage these strict regulatory requirements safely and effectively, we have a highly trained and skilled workforce that creates, implements and manages complex quality assurance and environmental health and safety programs, procedures and control systems. We coordinate and communicate with numerous regulatory agencies globally across our businesses on an ongoing and regular basis.

With 63 facilities across our businesses located in 13 countries, our network of global facilities represents a significant competitive advantage in serving the healthcare industry. Our sterilization facilities are often strategically located near our healthcare customers’ manufacturing sites or distribution hubs, which is intended to decrease our customers’ transportation costs and help them optimize their supply chain and logistics. Our laboratory testing facilities are strategically located in order to meet the demanding and often complex needs of our customers. Extensive capital, technical expertise and regulatory knowledge are required to build, maintain and operate facilities like ours. We estimate that one new sterilization facility can cost over $30 million to build, on average, and require extensive and complex licensing approval and regulatory compliance processes. We estimate that the cost to replace the facilities in our network alone could be as high as $1.5 billion or more, in addition to the technical and regulatory requirements.



 

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For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded net revenues of $778.3 million, net loss of $20.4 million, Adjusted Net Income of $100.4 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $379.9 million. In addition, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recorded net revenues of $601.3 million, net income of $5.9 million, Adjusted Net Income of $77.1 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $306.8 million. For the definition of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA and the reconciliation of these measures from net income (loss), please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

Industry Overview

We expect several positive secular trends to drive increased demand for our services, including:

 

   

Favorable demographic trends for healthcare worldwide: Healthcare demand is increasing globally, driven primarily by an aging population and an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. According to data published by the United Nations in 2019, the world’s population is expected to increase by 2 billion people in the next 30 years. In addition, one in six people are projected to be over the age of 65 globally by 2050, up from one in eleven in 2019. United Nations projections from 2019 also show that the number of people aged 80 or older is expected to triple in the next 30 years. These trends are driven by declining fertility and increasing longevity, as well as international migration. In many regions, the population aged 65 is projected to double by 2050, while global life expectancy beyond 65 is expected to increase by 19 years. In March 2020, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (the “CMS”) estimated that health expenditures in the United States will increase from approximately 18% of gross domestic product in 2018 to approximately 20% in 2028.

 

   

Increased demand for healthcare services in global markets: Stricter healthcare standards coupled with heightened regulatory requirements, greater availability of care and increased patient purchasing power are driving increased demand for healthcare services. In emerging markets, rapid urbanization and rising income, combined with an increase in diseases such as diabetes and cancer, have fueled the growth in access to, and demand for, healthcare services. In addition, the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic has also increased awareness of the importance of decontamination and sterilization. In 2018, the CMS estimated global healthcare costs to be approximately $4 trillion in 2019 and projected they would reach more than $6 trillion by 2027.

 

   

Growth in R&D spending and innovation across healthcare: The pharmaceutical and medical device industries are continuously innovating and developing new products, which we anticipate will increase the demand for sterilization and lab services. Worldwide pharmaceutical R&D spend is forecasted to grow steadily at a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of approximately 3% between 2019 and 2026, reaching $233 billion by 2026 (EvaluatePharma® July 2020, Evaluate Ltd.). In the medical devices market, the global top twenty companies based on R&D spending spent a combined $18 billion on R&D in 2017 (EvaluateMedTech® World Preview 2018, Evaluate Ltd.). This number is expected to grow at a 4% CAGR, reaching approximately $24 billion by 2024 (EvaluateMedTech® World Preview 2018, Evaluate Ltd.).

Key Strengths

We are a critical service provider in the healthcare value chain. Our customers rely on us to help ensure that medical, pharmaceutical and food products are safe for healthcare practitioners, patients and consumers. We provide services, including sterility assurance, product safety and effectiveness validation, that our customers need to get their products to market and into the hands of their end-users. Our breadth of services, technical and regulatory expertise, as well as our global scale, enable us to provide these mission-critical services which are necessary for Safeguarding Global Health®. These key strengths make us a global leader in our markets.



 

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Comprehensive, global provider of mission-critical sterilization and lab services for the healthcare industry

Our customers value our scale and breadth of services. We offer customers comprehensive sterilization, lab testing and expert advisory services on a global scale. Our customers in the healthcare industry require these services to navigate and operate in an increasingly complex and technical regulatory environment, and we believe we provide a differentiated value proposition to our customers by offering these services in an integrated manner. Our robust sterilization capabilities across all key modalities allow our customers to help ensure the safety of their products prior to delivery to their end-users. We offer over 800 microbiology and analytical chemistry lab tests that, together with our expert advisory services, cover the entirety of the medical device and pharmaceutical product lifecycles to evaluate and ensure that our customers’ products meet regulatory requirements. Our frequent interactions with our customers across multiple facets of their products’ lifecycles give us deep and often early insights into the evolving needs of the manufacturers of medical devices and pharmaceuticals. We have a large, global and strategically-located network of facilities that allows us to deploy the full array of our services to our customers where they need us. These comprehensive and global services make us an essential player across the medical device and pharmaceutical value chain.

Industry leading participant in large and growing markets, underpinned by trends in global healthcare

We estimate that the total global addressable market for terminal sterilization and outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing was approximately $33 billion in 2019. Global terminal sterilization accounted for $3 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019. Global outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing services accounted for $29 billion of our total addressable market in 2019.

Given the mission-critical need for our services within the healthcare industry, our growth historically has been impacted by broader global healthcare trends as opposed to macroeconomic trends. Trends including an aging population and increased access to, and demand for, healthcare services globally, have driven increases in volume demand for medical device and pharmaceutical products. In addition, the need for product enhancement and innovation by manufacturers drives further demand for our services. We believe the sterilization and lab services markets will continue to benefit from these trends, as well as from the increasingly complex regulatory and compliance environment and heightened focus by consumers on personal safety. As our customers continue to focus on innovation of their own products, they have increasingly relied on our expertise and our outsourced services to help them get their products to market. We believe our ability to provide end-to-end sterilization and lab services makes us a trusted partner to our customers in these large and growing markets.

Sterilization services business with an established and durable customer base supported by long-term contracts provides highly recurring revenue streams

We provide expertise and end-to-end sterilization services for our customers leading to deep, trusted relationships that allow them to meet their global regulatory compliance needs. Our relationships with our Sterigenics and Nordion customers are typically governed by multi-year contracts with cost pass-through provisions, which have resulted in recurring revenue streams and accretive growth. In addition, these customers often look to us as a long-term provider given switching providers can be costly and burdensome. For example, in most circumstances, switching providers requires additional testing, re-validation and Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) submissions and can take anywhere from six months to three years depending upon the class of product. Our relationships with our top ten sterilization services customers in 2019 had an average tenure of over a decade. Our partnerships with these customers have led to close to 100% renewal rates over the past five years.

Expertise and strong track record in highly regulated markets

We and our customers operate in highly complex and regulated markets that require deep knowledge and technical expertise. We believe that the operational discipline that we employ to manage intricate quality



 

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assurance and environmental health and safety (“EH&S”) programs in our own operations gives our customers confidence that we are the best partner to support them in their businesses. For example, we design and install emission controls in our EO facilities that often outperform the regulatory standards that we are required to meet. We also have a skilled team which has developed trusted relationships with numerous regulatory bodies around the world. For example, in 2019 we were selected by the FDA as one of eight participants to move to the next stage of a public innovation challenge to encourage the development of new approaches to medical device sterilization and new strategies to reduce EO emissions. We work closely with our customers, the FDA and others to consider enhanced EO cycle design and processes that would reduce EO emissions from the EO sterilization process to as close to zero as reasonably possible. Our relationships, combined with our thought leadership that is recognized by regulators and customers alike, enable us to inform the process of creating, interpreting and advising on safety standards. They also allow us to educate and advise our customers on current and newly evolving standards and requirements.

Global scale and integrated facility network provide differentiated services to our customers

We have a global network of 63 facilities, consisting of 50 sterilization services facilities and 13 labs, through which we provide services to more than 5,800 customers that have operations in over 50 countries. We have worked to standardize our enterprise resource planning, global quality and EH&S systems to integrate our network of facilities globally. This integration is critical for our customers, who operate globally and look for partners that can provide the same level of service, experience and expertise wherever they operate. We serve many of our sterilization customers at more than one facility, with more than 80% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using more than one of our facilities and more than 50% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using five or more of our facilities in 2019. The capital to replicate the scale of our global facility network, extensive and complex upfront licensing processes and intense regulatory compliance requirements make it extremely difficult for new competitors to easily enter our markets and replicate our scale. The combination of Sterigenics and Nordion makes us the only vertically integrated global supplier of gamma irradiation services, which allows Nordion to more confidently make long-term investments to expand Co-60 supply for the medical products sterilization industry. We believe our global scale, supported by our integrated facility network and core capabilities including deep end market, regulatory, technical and logistics expertise, will allow us to continue to expand our service offerings and customer base.

Experienced management team with proven track record of execution and financial performance

Our management team has significant industry expertise, an unwavering commitment to operational excellence and a proven track record of delivering financial performance. Our culture of accountability runs throughout the entire organization and has contributed meaningfully to our operational achievements and commercial success. Our management team is supported by nearly 2,900 team members around the world who are dedicated to safety and quality, which is why we are a trusted partner to our customers. We have delivered revenue growth every year since 2005, even through significant economic downturns, and have implemented productivity initiatives which have led to margin expansion. Our team brings extensive experience and is highly skilled at recognizing and acting upon market expansion opportunities. Our disciplined approach to M&A has enabled the successful integration of two transformational and seven bolt-on acquisitions over the past six years. In addition, we are disciplined in our capital deployment strategy, which is focused on achieving attractive returns on investment. We pursue capacity expansions that will allow us to consistently grow earnings.



 

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Our Strategy

Our strategy is designed to deliver on our mission of Safeguarding Global Health®, while generating sustainable growth, margins and cash flows for our business:

Drive organic growth by leveraging our leading capabilities, scale and global network

We believe that our established and durable relationships with our diverse customer base, along with the breadth and depth of our service offerings, provide us with a distinct leadership position within the markets that we serve. Our deep experience in sterilization and lab services allows us to be agile in identifying opportunities and decisive in deploying resources towards these opportunities to drive organic growth. We intend to continue capitalizing on our leadership position and integrated global facility network and capabilities to drive our growth by expanding existing customer relationships and attracting new customers. We also seek to accelerate our penetration in high-growth end-markets such as pharmaceuticals.

Deepen our customer relationships with our comprehensive service offerings in sterilization and lab services

Our customers around the world trust us to provide them with the highest quality sterilization and lab services. We are focused on broadening the number and range of services that each of our customers purchase from us by leveraging our core capabilities. We have continued to work on improving our customer interactions in order to deliver a “one company” experience across our sterilization and lab services so that we can further deepen our customer relationships. We provide comprehensive end-to-end services across our customers’ value chains so they can efficiently deliver the safest products to their end-users. We are the only industry player that offers the range of sterilization and lab services at the scale that we do. We strive for the full integration of our global operations to drive consistency across our services and provide our customers with a coordinated and seamless experience, designed to reduce cycle times for our services and improve efficiency. Our offerings facilitate long-term partnerships with our customers and make us an integral part of their product development and commercialization processes. We have multiple decades of deep expertise across key sterilization modalities as well as lab testing services across our customers’ full product lifecycles. We provide over 800 laboratory tests, which we believe is multiple times the number of offerings of our nearest competitor.

Expand footprint to meet the local needs of our growing global customer base

We are focused on aligning our facility network to best meet our customers’ requirements. We believe our valuable insight into our customers’ current and future needs will allow us to efficiently grow our business. Our global presence reflects our commitment to developing our footprint to serve our customers’ supply chains. Our integrated network of facilities is important to our customers as they can rely on the same level of service at each of our facilities, regardless of where they are around the world. We believe our sterilization services customers are seeking a partner that can operate near their manufacturing sites and distribution centers around the world, as transportation and logistics costs can be meaningful for our customers. In certain circumstances we will invest in projects to build capacity ahead of demand in alignment with the strategic plans of our customers. Our lab services customers are seeking expertise with both international and U.S. regulatory bodies. As our customers expand their global operations, we are well-equipped to expand with them and serve them where they need us.

Invest in technical and regulatory capabilities to enhance our leadership position

Our customers depend on our deep and extensive technical knowhow to get their products to market. We plan to continue to invest in our technical expertise and regulatory knowhow to stay ahead of the dynamic and increasingly complex regulatory landscape in the healthcare industry. Our combination of technical and regulatory expertise allows us to advance the standards of safety for crucial products whose end-users include



 

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healthcare practitioners and patients. As customers look to us for expertise, this landscape creates opportunities for us to drive growth in our advisory services offering. We believe that our position as a key industry thought leader makes us a trusted partner for customers as they are developing new products and a respected industry partner for regulators as they are defining industry standards of safety for the future.

Continue our commitment to operational excellence to drive business efficiency and results

Our focus on operational excellence has allowed us to increase capacity utilization and improve working capital, thereby growing our revenues while expanding margins and improving the customer experience. Our commitment to implementing and improving customer-experience enhancing initiatives and internal processes has been a key driver of our strong financial profile to date. Our customer-facing initiatives around cycle time reduction, quality self-service reporting, purchase order accuracy and scheduling efficiencies highlight our rigorous, detail-oriented approach to operational excellence and connectivity with our long-time customers. These initiatives are designed not only to reduce turnaround times and increase predictability of service for our customers, but also to maximize our financial results. We will continue to address our customers’ expectations through our internal processes centered on talent management, quality, EH&S and information technology. We believe that these processes will enable us to continue to deliver growth, profitability and cash generation.

Pursue value-creating strategic acquisitions to expand our addressable market and enhance our global capabilities and footprint

Our disciplined approach to M&A has resulted in our successful track record of identifying, completing and integrating strategic acquisitions into our company and we intend to continue to pursue value-creating strategic acquisitions. We have implemented a disciplined framework to support our acquisition efforts that focuses on quality businesses that are well-regarded by our customers and aligned with our culture of accountability, customer service and operating with integrity. Illustrating this highly disciplined acquisition framework are our two transformational acquisitions of Nordion and Nelson Labs. In addition to these major acquisitions, we acquired FTSI, Gammarad, CBE, REVISS, Toxikon Europe NV, Gibraltar Laboratories and Iotron Industries Canada, Inc. (“lotron”), which provided geographic, technical and service line expansions. Our acquisition of Nelson Labs expanded our capabilities by creating an enhanced lab services platform to provide microbiology testing within our existing customer end-markets and increasing the number of tests we could provide to our customers. We have a strong foundation to continually evaluate acquisition opportunities that would expand our addressable market and enhance our global capabilities and footprint. We are well positioned to evaluate other acquisitions that leverage our core capabilities while expanding our existing customer relationships. We currently have a significant pipeline of targets, ranging from small, owner operated businesses to larger businesses, and believe that we can identify the appropriate targets and integrate them seamlessly into our business.

Risk Factor Summary

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. These risks are discussed in more detail in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 22, and you should carefully consider these risks before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The following is a summary of some of the principal risks we believe we face:

 

   

disruption in the availability of, or increases in the price of, EO, Co-60 or our direct materials, services and supplies, including as a result of geopolitical instability arising from U.S. relations with Russia and related sanctions;

 

   

changes in industry trends, environmental, health and safety regulations or preferences and general economic, social and business conditions;



 

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health and safety risks associated with the use, transportation and disposal of potentially hazardous materials such as EO and Co-60;

 

   

the impact and outcome of current and future legal proceedings and liability claims, including tort lawsuits alleging personal injury or property devaluation by purported exposure to emissions of EO from our facility in Willowbrook and our facility in Atlanta, the possibility that other claims will be made in the future relating to these or other facilities and any inadequacy of our insurance coverage to pay any judgments rendered against us, including that our per occurrence limit for claims relating to Willowbrook’s EO emissions has been reached;

 

   

compliance with regulatory requirements to which we are subject and the related costs, and any failures to receive or maintain, or delays in receiving, required clearance or approvals;

 

   

competition we face;

 

   

business continuity hazards and other risks associated with our operations;

 

   

our ability to increase capacity at existing facilities, renew leases for our facilities and build new facilities in a timely and cost-effective manner;

 

   

the risks of doing business internationally;

 

   

cyber security breaches and data leaks, and our dependence on information technology systems;

 

   

any inability to pursue strategic transactions, including to find suitable acquisition targets, and our failure to integrate strategic acquisitions successfully into our existing business or realize anticipated cost savings or synergies;

 

   

any inability to implement effective internal controls over financial reporting;

 

   

our history of net operating losses, including a net loss of $20.8 million and $5.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the risk that we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future;

 

   

our substantial leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, limit our flexibility in operating our business through restrictions contained in our debt agreements and prevent us from meeting our obligations under our existing and future indebtedness. As of September 30, 2020, our indebtedness totaled approximately $2,910 million, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, our debt service obligations (principal and interest) represented approximately 66% of our net cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest). As adjusted to give effect to this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, as of September 30, 2020, our indebtedness would have totaled approximately $1,975.7 million, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, our debt service obligations (principal and interest) would have represented approximately 55% of our net cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest);

 

   

the Sponsors will continue to have substantial control over us after this offering, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control; and

 

   

the fact that we may be considered a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards and would qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements, which means that our stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.



 

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Corporate Information and Structure

Sotera Health Company was incorporated in Delaware in November 2017 as the parent company for Sterigenics, Nordion and Nelson Labs. In May 2015, investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus LLC (“Warburg Pincus”) or GTCR, LLC (“GTCR”) acquired a controlling interest in our predecessor through Sterigenics-Nordion Topco Parent LLC, now known as Sotera Health Topco Parent, L.P. (“Topco Parent”). On October 23, 2020, we changed our name from Sotera Health Topco, Inc. to Sotera Health Company. The issuer in this offering, Sotera Health Company, is a Delaware corporation and is a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Topco Parent. Pursuant to the terms of the corporate reorganization that will be completed prior to the completion of this offering, Topco Parent will distribute the shares of Sotera Health Company common stock to its partners in accordance with the limited partnership agreement of Topco Parent. For more information on our corporate reorganization and ownership of our common stock, see “Corporate Reorganization” and “Principal Stockholders.”

Our principal executive offices are located at 9100 South Hills Blvd, Suite 300 Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147, and our telephone number is (440) 262-1410. Our corporate website address is www.soterahealth.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our corporate website into this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

Our wholly owned subsidiary, Sotera Health Holdings, LLC (“SHH”) is the borrower under our senior secured first lien credit facilities and the issuer of our senior secured first lien notes and our senior secured second lien notes. We and certain of our domestic subsidiaries are guarantors of SHH’s obligations under our credit facilities and notes.

Principal Stockholders

Following this offering, certain investment funds and entities affiliates of Warburg Pincus and GTCR, which we refer to collectively as the “Sponsors,” will own approximately 42.9% and 28.6%, respectively, of our common stock (approximately 41.8% and 27.9%, respectively, if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). Together the Sponsors will own, in the aggregate, approximately 71.4% of our common stock (approximately 69.7% if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full).

Warburg Pincus is a global private equity firm focused on growth investing. The firm’s active portfolio of more than 185 companies is highly diversified by stage, sector and geography. It has invested approximately $12.3 billion of equity in the healthcare industry, and possesses direct knowledge of the sterilization services industry’s end markets and medical device customers through its investments in other healthcare companies. Warburg Pincus is an experienced partner to management teams seeking to build durable companies with sustainable value. Founded in 1966, Warburg Pincus has raised over 20 private equity funds with capital commitments totaling $99 billion and has invested more than $88 billion in over 930 companies across 40 countries. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in Beijing, Berlin, Hong Kong, Houston, London, Mumbai, San Francisco, São Paulo, Shanghai and Singapore.

Founded in 1980, GTCR is a private equity firm focused on investing in growth companies in the Healthcare, Technology, Media & Telecommunications, Financial Services & Technology and Growth Business Services industries. The Chicago-based firm pioneered The Leaders Strategy–finding and partnering with management leaders in core domains to identify, acquire and build market-leading companies through transformational acquisitions and organic growth. Since its inception, GTCR has invested more than $18 billion in over 200 companies. GTCR is an active investor in the healthcare products sector and has supported Sotera Health’s significant growth since 2011.



 

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Pursuant to certain agreements to be entered into prior to the consummation of this offering in connection with the corporate reorganization, we will be required to take all necessary action to cause our board of directors to include individuals designated by the Sponsors pursuant to certain ownership thresholds. Warburg Pincus and GTCR, individually, will be required to vote all of their shares, and take all other necessary actions, to cause our board of directors to include the individuals designated as directors by Warburg Pincus and GTCR, as applicable. After the completion of this offering, the Sponsors will control a majority of the voting power of shares of our common stock with respect to the election of directors and will control a majority of the board of directors.

Channels for Disclosure of Information

Following the completion of this offering, we intend to announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, the investor relations page on our website (www.soterahealth.com), press releases, public conference calls and public webcasts.

Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations page on our website.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements otherwise applicable generally to public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (iii) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the prior June 30 and (iv) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced disclosure obligations in future filings. If we do, the information that we provide to stockholders may be different than you might get from other public companies in which you hold stock.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies or at which time we conclude it is appropriate to avail ourselves of early adoption provisions of applicable standards. As a result, our results of operations and financial statements may not be comparable to the results of operations and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards.



 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

46,600,000 shares.

 

Underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares

We may sell up to 6,990,000 additional shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

277,431,755 shares (or 284,421,755 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).

 

Use of proceeds

Our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $1,010.2 million (or approximately $1,161.7 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

  We intend to use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to (i) redeem all of the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Second Lien Notes at the applicable redemption premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption and (ii) repurchase 1,568,445 shares of our common stock from certain of our executive officers at a purchase price per share equal to the initial public offering price per share of our common stock less an amount equal to the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon (the “repurchase”). We plan to use the balance of the net proceeds of this offering to repay a portion of the outstanding indebtedness under our Term Loan. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Dividend policy

We do not expect to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we anticipate that all of our earnings in the foreseeable future will be used for the operation and growth of our business and the repayment of indebtedness. See “Dividend Policy.”

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

Stockholders’ agreement

Following the completion of this offering, we will have a stockholders’ agreement with certain holders of our common stock, including the Sponsors, that will provide certain rights to those holders. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Stockholders’ Agreement.”

 

Registration rights agreement

Following the completion of this offering, we will have a registration rights agreement with certain holders of our common stock, including the Sponsors, whereby, following this offering and the expiration of the lock-up agreement with the underwriters in this offering, we may be required to register under the Securities Act the sale of shares of our common stock under specified circumstances. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Registration Rights Agreement.”


 

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Conflicts of interest

Affiliates of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC hold approximately $420 million aggregate principal amount of the Second Lien Notes, all of which will be redeemed at the applicable redemption premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding the date of redemption and less than $1.5 million of the aggregate principal amount of the Term Loan, a portion of which will be repaid, and as a result will receive approximately 42.4% of the net proceeds of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares. See “Use of Proceeds.” Accordingly, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC is deemed to have a conflict of interest within the meaning of Rule 5121 (“Rule 5121”) of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Therefore, this offering is being made in compliance with the requirements of Rule 5121. This rule requires, among other things, that a “qualified independent underwriter” participate in the preparation of, and exercise the usual standards of “due diligence” with respect to, the registration statement and this prospectus. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC has agreed to act as qualified independent underwriter for this offering and to undertake the legal responsibilities and liabilities of an underwriter under the Securities Act. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC will not receive any additional fees for serving as qualified independent underwriter in connection with this offering. We have agreed to indemnify J.P. Morgan Securities LLC against liabilities incurred in connection with acting as qualified independent underwriter, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Pursuant to FINRA Rule 5121, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC will not confirm sales of our common stock to any account over which it exercises discretionary authority without the prior written approval of the customer. For more information, see “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

 

Nasdaq symbol

“SHC”

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after the offering is based on 232,400,200 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020, 1,568,445 shares to be repurchased from certain of our executive officers in the repurchase and 46,600,000 shares to be sold in the offering.

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering does not take into account an aggregate of 27,900,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”), which we adopted in connection with this offering (including the IPO Awards (as defined below), which we expect to grant to certain of our employees and consultants in connection with this offering, including grants to our Named Executive Officers with an aggregate grant date value currently estimated to be approximately $19.8 million. See “Executive Compensation—2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan” and “Executive Compensation—Equity Grants Made in Connection with This Offering.”

In addition, except as otherwise noted, all information in this prospectus:

 

   

assumes the completion of our corporate reorganization prior to the completion of this offering, including a forward stock split to reclassify all 3,000 shares of our common stock outstanding as 232,400,200 shares. See “Corporate Reorganization”;

 

   

gives effect to the amendment and restatement of our certificate of incorporation and amendment and restatement of our bylaws prior to the closing of this offering;



 

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gives effect to the repurchase of certain shares of common stock as described under “Use of Proceeds”; and

 

   

assumes the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.



 

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Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data

The following tables present our summary historical consolidated financial and other data. The summary historical consolidated statements of operations data and statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the summary historical balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary historical consolidated statements of operations data and statements of cash flows data for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 and the summary historical consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of our management, reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring items, considered necessary for a fair presentation of this data.

The following summary consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the information contained in “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period and our results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any full fiscal year.

 

Statement of Operations Data:   Year Ended December 31,     Nine Months Ended September 30,  
(in thousands, except per share amounts)           2019                     2018                     2020                     2019          

Revenues:

       

Service

  $ 673,037     $ 615,510     $ 524,025     $ 501,875  

Product

    105,290       130,639       77,288       82,967  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

    778,327       746,149       601,313       584,842  

Cost of revenues:

       

Service

    333,290       326,559       247,386       248,406  

Product

    49,606       62,338       30,932       38,226  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

    382,896       388,897       278,318       286,632  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    395,431       357,252       322,995       298,210  

Operating expenses:

       

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    147,480       133,363       125,369       110,360  

Amortization of intangible assets

    58,562       57,975       43,989       43,942  

Impairment of long-lived assets

    5,792       34,981       —         5,781  

Impairment of GA-MURR intangible assets

    —         50,086       —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    211,834       276,405       169,358       160,083  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income

    183,597       80,847       153,637       138,127  

Interest expense, net

    157,729       143,326       167,142       114,478  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

    30,168       —         —         —    

Foreign exchange (gain) loss

    3,862       13,075       (5,370     8,444  

Gain on sale of Medical Isotopes business

    —         (95,910     —         —    

Other income, net

    (7,246     (3,866     (4,353     (4,746
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

    (916     24,222       (3,782     19,951  

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

    19,509       30,098       (9,677     12,630  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

    (20,425     (5,876     5,895       7,321  

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests

    425       (6     832       271  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to the company

  $ (20,850   $ (5,870   $ 5,063     $ 7,050  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 


 

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Statement of Operations Data (continued):   Year Ended December 31,     Nine Months Ended September 30,  
(in thousands, except per share amounts)           2019                     2018                     2020                     2019          

Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:

       

Pension and post-retirement benefits

  $ (12,126   $ 873     $ 700     $ (409

Interest rate swaps

    179       —         (179     509  

Foreign currency translation

    27,402       (67,917     (31,304     10,968  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income (loss)

    (4,970     (72,920     (24,888     18,389  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Less: comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    310       (186     832       156  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to the company

  $ (5,280   $ (72,734   $ (25,720   $ 18,233  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Earnings (loss) per share:

       

Basic and Diluted

  $ (0.09   $ (0.03   $ 0.02     $ 0.03  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute earnings (loss) per share:

       

Basic and Diluted

    232,400       232,400       232,400       232,400  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share (unaudited):(a)

       

Basic and Diluted

  $ 0.14       $ 0.21    
 

 

 

     

 

 

   

Pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares used to compute earnings (loss) per share (unaudited):(b)

       

Basic and Diluted

    277,432         277,432    
 

 

 

     

 

 

   
       

Selected cash flow data:

       

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 149,041     $ 119,563     $ 98,740     $ 138,974  

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(c)

    (57,257     96,638       (139,920     (36,636

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    (126,030     (191,857     83,961       (108,811

Other data:

       

Adjusted Net Income(d)

  $ 100,386     $ 75,315     $ 77,144     $ 87,897  

Adjusted EBITDA(d)

    379,932       340,637       306,797       285,457  

 

(a)

Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share for the year ended December 31, 2019 has been adjusted to reflect $58.7 million of lower interest expense, net of taxes, assuming the repayment of previously outstanding $425.0 million Senior PIK Toggle Notes, due 2021, $450.0 million Senior Notes, due 2023 and $75.0 million of principal amount outstanding of the Term Loan, due 2022, using a portion of the proceeds of this offering as if such indebtedness had been repaid as of the beginning of the period. Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 has been adjusted to reflect $53.6 million of lower interest expense, net of taxes, assuming the repayment of the $770.0 million of principal amount outstanding of the Second Lien Notes, due 2027, and $190.8 million of principal amount outstanding of our Term Loan, due 2026, using a portion of the proceeds of this offering as if such indebtedness had been repaid as of the beginning of the period.

(b)

Pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares has been adjusted to (i) include those shares of common stock to be issued in this offering necessary to pay down the debt referenced in footnote (a) above and (ii) reflect the number of shares of common stock that will be repurchased in the repurchase. Such shares are assumed to have been issued or repurchased, as applicable as of the beginning of the year ended December 31, 2019 and as of the beginning of the nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.

(c)

Includes purchases of property, plant and equipment of $57,257, $72,613, $33,640 and $36,636, respectively (which includes Co-60 held at gamma irradiation sites).



 

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(d)

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. For a definition of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to net income (loss), see “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

    As of
December 31,
    As of September 30, 2020(a)  
    2019     2018     Actual     Pro
Forma  As
Adjusted(a)(b)
 
Balance Sheet Data (as of period end):                        
(in thousands)                        

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 62,863     $ 96,272     $ 108,276     $ 104,122  

Working capital(b)

    128,364       169,488       163,810       159,656  

Total assets

    2,580,674       2,708,584       2,700,004       2,695,850  

Total long-term debt (including current portion, less unamortized debt issuance costs and debt discounts)

    2,817,204       2,204,906       2,909,980       1,975,746  

Total liabilities

    3,221,806       2,663,093       3,362,005       2,424,571  

Total equity (deficit) attributable to the company

    (642,574     44,359       (663,858     298,442  

Noncontrolling interests

    1,442       1,132       1,857       1,857  

Total equity (deficit)

    (641,132     45,491       (662,001     300,299  

 

(a)

The pro forma as adjusted balance sheet data reflects the share-based compensation expense of $4.0 million, net of tax, associated with Class B-2 Units that we will recognize upon the listing and public trading of our common stock, reflected as a $4.9 million increase to additional paid-in capital with an offsetting $4.0 million (net of tax) increase to retained deficit. The pro forma as adjusted balance sheet data gives further effect to (i) the sale of 46,600,000 shares of our common stock in this offering, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, and the payment of approximately $4.1 million of incremental offering expenses and (ii) the application of the net proceeds from this offering to (a) repay $960.8 million of our outstanding indebtedness under our Second Lien Notes and our Term Loan, and reflect a write-off of associated unamortized debt issuance costs and debt discounts, and payment of the estimated redemption premium of $15.4 million on our Second Lien Notes, which is reflected as a net of tax adjustment of $11.7 million to retained earnings, and (b) repurchase certain shares of common stock (in each case, as described under “Use of Proceeds”).

(b)

Working capital represents current assets less current liabilities.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

To supplement our consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP, we consider Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, financial measures that are not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by GAAP.

We define Adjusted Net Income as net income (loss) before amortization and certain other adjustments that we do not consider in our evaluation of our ongoing operating performance from period to period as discussed further below. We define Adjusted EBITDA as Adjusted Net Income before interest expense, depreciation (including depreciation of Co-60 used in our operations) and income tax provision applicable to Adjusted Net Income.

We use Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP financial measures, as the principal measures of our operating performance. Management believes Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are useful because they allow management to more effectively evaluate our operating performance and compare the results of our operations from period to period without the impact of certain non-cash items and non-routine items that we do not expect to continue at the same level in the future and other items that are not core to our operations. We believe that these measures are useful to our investors because it provides a more complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business than could be obtained absent this disclosure. In



 

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addition, we believe Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA will assist investors in making comparisons to our historical operating results and analyzing the underlying performance of our operations for the periods presented. Our management also uses Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA in their financial analysis and operational decision-making and Adjusted EBITDA serves as the metric for attainment of our primary annual incentive program. Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, a similarly titled measure used by other companies.

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. There are a number of limitations related to the use of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA rather than net income (loss), the nearest GAAP equivalent. For example, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA exclude:

 

   

certain recurring non-cash charges such as depreciation of fixed assets, although these assets may have to be replaced in the future, as well as amortization of acquired intangible assets and asset retirement obligations;

 

   

costs of acquiring and integrating businesses, which will continue to be a part of our growth strategy;

 

   

non-cash gains or losses from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, primarily related to remeasurement of intercompany loans denominated in currencies other than subsidiaries’ functional currencies, and the mark-to-fair value of embedded derivatives relating to certain customer and supply contracts at Nordion;

 

   

impairment charges on long-lived assets and intangible assets;

 

   

expenses and charges related to the litigation and other activities associated with our ethylene oxide sterilization facilities in Willowbrook, Illinois and Atlanta, Georgia, even though that litigation remains ongoing;

 

   

in the case of Adjusted EBITDA, interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our indebtedness; and

 

   

share-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense and an important part of our compensation strategy.

In evaluating Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, you should be aware that in the future, we will incur expenses similar to the adjustments in this presentation. Our presentations of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA should not be construed as suggesting that our future results will be unaffected by these expenses or any unusual or non-recurring items. When evaluating our performance, you should consider Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including our net income (loss) and other GAAP measures.



 

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The following table presents a reconciliation of net income (loss), the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,     Nine Months Ended September 30,  
(in thousands)          2019                 2018                 2020                 2019        

Net income (loss)

   $ (20,425   $ (5,876   $ 5,895     $ 7,321  

Amortization expense

     80,048       79,906       59,824       60,043  

Impairment of long-lived assets and intangible assets(a)

     5,792       85,067       —         5,781  

Gain on sale of Medical Isotopes business(b)

     —         (95,910     —         —    

Share-based compensation(c)

     16,882       6,943       4,019       15,120  

One-time bonuses(d)

     2,040       —         —         530  

(Gain) loss on foreign currency and embedded derivatives(e)

     2,662       14,095       (4,791     8,298  

Acquisition and divestiture related charges, net(f)

     (318     1,168       2,970       (704

Business optimization project expenses(g)

     4,195       8,805       2,484       1,485  

Plant closure expense(h)

     1,712       —         2,388       1,145  

Loss on extinguishment of debt(i)

     30,168       —         —         —    

Professional services relating to Willowbrook and Atlanta facilities(j)

     11,216       4,739       25,370       7,788  

Accretion of asset retirement obligation(k)

     2,051       1,366       1,476       1,457  

COVID-19 expenses(l)

     —         —         2,363       —    

Income tax benefit associated with pre-tax

adjustments(m)

     (35,637     (24,988     (24,854     (20,367
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Net Income

     100,386       75,315       77,144       87,897  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Interest expense, net

     157,729       143,326       167,142       114,478  

Depreciation(n)

     66,671       66,910       47,334       50,085  

Income tax provision (benefit) applicable to Adjusted Net Income(o)

     55,146       55,086       15,177       32,997  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ 379,932     $ 340,637     $ 306,797     $ 285,457  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(a)

For 2019, represents impairment charges related to the decision to not reopen the Willowbrook facility in September 2019. For 2018, represents impairment charges associated with the withdrawal of the GA-MURR project.

(b)

Represents the gain on the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business in July 2018.

(c)

Includes non-cash share-based compensation expense. In 2019, also includes $10.0 million of one-time cash share-based compensation expense related to the Class C Performance and Time Vesting Units, which vested in the third quarter of 2019 based on the achievement of the aggregate distributions to the Class A Unitholder Members and the approval of the board of Topco Parent for accelerated vesting.

(d)

Represents one-time cash bonuses for members of management relating to capital markets activity in 2019.

(e)

Represents the effects of (i) fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, primarily related to remeasurement of intercompany loans denominated in currencies other than subsidiaries’ functional currencies, and (ii) non-cash mark-to-fair value of embedded derivatives relating to certain customer and supply contracts at Nordion.

(f)

Represents (i) certain direct and incremental costs related to the acquisition of Toxikon Europe NV (“Nelson Europe”) in 2017, Gibraltar Laboratories, Inc. (“Nelson Fairfield”) in 2018 and Iotron Industries Canada, Inc. in July 2020, and certain related integration efforts as a result of those acquisitions, (ii) the earnings impact of fair value adjustments (excluding those recognized within amortization expense) resulting from



 

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  the businesses acquired, and (iii) transition services income and non-cash deferred lease income associated with the terms of the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business in 2018.
(g)

Represents professional fees, contract termination and exit costs, severance and other payroll costs, and other costs associated with business optimization and cost savings projects relating to the integrations of Nordion and Nelson Labs, including the divestiture of Medical Isotopes, the withdrawal from the GA-MURR project, the Sotera Health rebranding, operating structure realignment and other process enhancement projects.

(h)

Represents professional fees, severance and other payroll costs, and other costs including ongoing lease and utility expenses associated with the closure of the Willowbrook facility.

(i)

Represents one-time expenses incurred in connection with the refinancing of our debt capital structure in December 2019, including accelerated amortization of prior debt issuance and discount costs, premiums paid in connection with early extinguishment and debt issuance and discount costs incurred for the new debt.

(j)

Represents professional fees related to litigation associated with our EO sterilization facilities in Willowbrook and Atlanta and other related activities. See “Business—Legal Proceedings.”

(k)

Represents the non-cash accretion of asset retirement obligations related to Co-60 and gamma processing facilities, which are based on estimated site remediation costs for any future decommissioning of these facilities (without regard for whether the decommissioning services would be performed by employees of Nordion, instead of by a third party) and are accreted over the life of the asset.

(l)

Represents non-recurring costs associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including donations to related charitable causes and special bonuses for front-line personnel working on-site during lockdown periods.

(m)

Represents the tax benefit or provision associated with the reconciling items between net income (loss) and Adjusted Net Income. To determine the aggregate tax effect of the reconciling items, we utilized statutory income tax rates ranging from 0% to 35%, depending upon the applicable jurisdictions of each adjustment.

(n)

Includes depreciation of Co-60 held at gamma irradiation sites.

(o)

Represents the difference between income tax expense or benefit as determined under U.S. GAAP and the income tax benefit associated with pre-tax adjustments described in footnote (m).



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks before deciding to invest in our common stock. The occurrence of any of the following risks could harm our business, revenue and financial results. In addition, risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial could also harm our business, revenue and financial results. If any of these risks occur, the value of our common stock could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to the Company

We depend on a limited number of counterparties that provide the materials and resources we need to operate our business. Any disruption in the availability of, or increases in the price of, EO, Co-60 or our other direct materials, services and supplies, including as a result of current geopolitical instability arising from U.S. relations with Russia and related sanctions, may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

We purchase certain direct materials, equipment and services necessary for the provision of our specialized products and services from a sole or limited number of suppliers and subcontractors, and purchase large quantities of product from an individual supplier in certain cases. If one or more of our significant suppliers or service providers were unable to meet their obligations under present arrangements, direct materials or equipment were to become unavailable within the geographic area from which they are now sourced, or supplies were otherwise constrained or disrupted for any reason (including as a result of a natural disaster or other adverse occurrence), we may incur increased costs for our direct materials or equipment and may be unable to accommodate new business or meet our current customer commitments. For example, in the United States there is a single supplier of EO for our sterilization business. Further, our reliance on a single or limited number of suppliers may limit our negotiating power, particularly during times of rising direct material costs.

We source a substantial portion of our Co-60 supply from three nuclear reactor operators in Canada and Russia under contracts that extend to between 2024 and 2064. See “Business—Our Businesses—Nordion—Nuclear Reactor Operators.” If there were a decrease in output or disruption at any of these reactors (including as a result of a natural disaster or other adverse occurrence), the counterparties failed to perform under their agreements with us or declined to enter into renewal contracts with us for our future supply needs and we are unable to obtain supply from other sources, or if such sources begin to compete with us in one or more geographies, this could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, a number of reactors that have the capacity to generate Co-60 are government owned. Priorities of governments can change. Any repurposing of a government-owned reactor that generates Co-60 for an alternative use has in the past and could in the future lead to a decrease in Co-60 availability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Further, approximately 20% of our supply of Co-60 currently is generated by Russian nuclear reactors. Over the next few years, we expect that there will be periods when, due to planned or unplanned outages and variability in supply from individual reactors, the proportion of our supply from Russian reactors may increase to as much as 50% for a given year. The United States, Canada and the European Union have imposed sanctions against Russian officials and certain Russian companies and individuals. Russia has responded with countermeasures, including limiting the import of certain goods from the United States and other countries. Expanded sanctions could target government-owned operations, including Russian nuclear reactor operators, and could prevent us from doing business with them. The U.S. government has also implemented certain sanctions targeting non-U.S. persons for activities conducted outside the United States that involve specific sanctions targets or certain activities related to sanctioned countries, any of which could prohibit us from conducting routine commercial transactions with Russian entities that are engaged in certain transactions related to sanctioned countries or sanctioned parties. If the U.S. government significantly broadens the scope of, or Canada or the European Union imposes, sanctions against Russia and prevents the importation of Russian-sourced Co-60 or the Russian government responds with further countersanctions, it may make it generally more difficult to do

 

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business with Russian entities. Any sanctions or countermeasures could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Any interruptions that we experience with our key suppliers, regarding the availability of Co-60, changes in regulatory requirements regarding the use of Co-60 or unavailability or short-supply of raw materials or services, may disrupt or cause a shutdown of portions of our operations, materially increase our costs or have other adverse consequences on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Industry trends could impact the demand for our products and services and could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Industry trends that affect medical device, pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies affect our business. The medical device industry is characterized by frequent product development and technological advances, which may reduce demand for our sterilizing and testing services if our existing services no longer meet our customers’ requirements. Any significant decrease in life science research and development expenditures by medical device, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including as a result of a general economic slowdown, could in turn impact the volumes of medical products that require sterilization or lab testing services. Future demand for Co-60 or our sterilization services could also be adversely impacted by changes to preferred sterilization modalities. Our ability to adapt our business to meet evolving customer needs depends upon the development and successful commercialization of new services, new or improved technologies and additional applications of our technology for our customers’ new products. We can give no assurance that any such new services will be successful or that they will be accepted in the marketplace. Any failure to develop or commercialize new services and technologies and any decrease in demand for our products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

If changes in healthcare regulations or other developments in the healthcare industry, including concerns around single-use medical devices, were to lead to a material reduction in medical procedures or use of medical devices, demand for our services could be adversely affected. Demand for our products and services may also be affected by changes from time to time in the laws and regulations that govern our operations and industry, including the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which in turn impact industry trends. New regulatory requirements could lead to changes in the medical device industry and the behavior of our customers that are difficult to predict but could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Further, if any significant disposal restrictions or requirements are imposed that materially increase the cost or administrative burden of the disposal process for single-use medical devices, hospitals and other end-users of such devices might decrease their use of such devices in favor of reusable medical products, which would decrease the demand for our services, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in environmental, health and safety regulations or preferences may negatively impact our business.

Federal, state and international authorities regulate the operation of our gamma irradiation and EO processing plants, as well as the operations of our customers. If any of the regulators that govern our operations or the operations of our customers were to institute severely restrictive policies or regulations that increase our costs or change the preferences or requirements of our customers, demand for our products and services may be materially affected. Additionally, certain regulators, including the FDA, have started initiatives to encourage development of sterilization alternatives to EO processing. We have taken part in some of these initiatives. We have made proactive, voluntary investments to enhance emissions controls. However, new regulations or changes to existing or expected regulations may require additional investments in new emissions control technology or otherwise increase the cost of our gamma irradiation or EO processing. Reconfiguring a gamma irradiation or EO processing plant so that it is suitable for a different sterilization technology, in response to changes in demand or other factors, would require significant capital investment and require us to suspend operations at the affected

 

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facility during the conversion. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Safety risks associated with the use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials, such as EO and Co-60, may result in accidents or liabilities that materially affect our results of operations.

EO is flammable and potentially explosive. An explosion or fire could occur at the sterilization facilities at which we use EO, including due to an accidental ignition of EO in an uncontrolled environment. Particular care must be exercised in order to avoid inadvertently causing an explosion or fire, which could interrupt our normal operations at or cause a shut-down of the affected facility while repairs are made. Any EO explosion or similar incident could result in the closure of our facilities, workplace injuries, property damage or otherwise adversely affect our business.

Because Co-60 is radioactive, its containment is very important in preventing contamination or improper exposure. If the double-encapsulated Co-60 pencils were to become damaged or corroded, Co-60 sources could develop a source leak, leading to radioactive contamination requiring comprehensive clean-up of the storage pool. Similarly, physical damage to the protective stainless-steel covering during the process of adding or removing Co-60 rods from an irradiator could also result in a source leak and contamination incident. Clean-up and disposal costs for damaged Co-60 rods and radioactive contamination could be significant. If any liability claims are made against us in the future, we could be liable for damages that are alleged to have resulted from such exposure or contamination.

In addition, these materials must be handled and disposed of properly. Accidents involving disposal or handling of these substances, including accidents resulting from employees failing to follow safety protocols, could result in injury to property, the environment and human health, as well as possible disruptions, restrictions or delays in production, and have in the past and could in the future result in claims relating to such events. For example, members of our workforce in the past have been injured in our facilities. Any injuries or damage to persons, equipment or property or other disruption in the disposal, production, processing or distribution of products could result in a significant decrease in operating revenue, a significant increase in costs to replace or repair and insure our assets and substantial reputational harm, which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations, and could have legal consequences that affect our ability to continue to operate the affected facility. Our customers served by an affected facility could choose to switch to an alternative sterilization service provider.

Any incident occurring at any of our EO or gamma facilities that causes harm to workers or others or the interruption of normal operations at the affected facility could result in substantial liability to us. We are currently the subject of lawsuits alleging that purported EO emissions from certain of our current and former facilities have resulted in toxicological or health-related impact on the environment, the communities that surround our facility and a customer’s employees. We deny these allegations and intend to vigorously defend against these claims. We have also from time to time been involved with workers’ compensation claims relating to potentially hazardous materials. We may be subject to similar claims in the future, and one or more adverse judgments could result in significant liability for us and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “—We are currently defending certain litigation, and we are likely to be subject to additional litigation in the future” and “—Potential health risks associated with the use of EO and Co-60 may subject us to future liability claims.”

Nordion contracts for the activation of Co-59 “targets” (cobalt pellets and slugs) into Co-60 in certain nuclear reactors in Canada and Russia. Our Co-59 targets (and in Canada, our adjuster rods provided to us by a supplier) function as part of the reactors’ reactivity control systems. While national laws or international conventions generally channel liability for nuclear incidents exclusively to reactor operators, equipment suppliers could be subject to lawsuits for damage to the nuclear installation or damages allegedly intentionally caused. While we make efforts to protect our interests through contractual provisions, quality assurance programs and the

 

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nature of our commercial relationships, there is no assurance that any of these measures will prove effective in shielding us from liability, and any such liability or consequences could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation and financial condition.

We currently carry pollution liability insurance for all our facilities and related operations and liability insurance, including from third party bodily injury or property damage allegedly arising from the storage, use, transportation or accident involving EO and Co-60 sources throughout our operations. However, such insurance may not cover all risks associated with the potential hazards of our business and is subject to limitations, including deductibles and maximum liabilities covered. We may incur losses beyond the limits, or outside the coverage, of our insurance policies. Additionally, our ability to increase pollution liability insurance limits or replace any policies upon their expiration without exclusions for claims related to alleged EO exposure may be adversely impacted by claims against us, including current claims alleging that purported EO emissions from certain of our facilities have resulted in toxicological or health-related impact on the environment, the communities that surround our facility and a customer’s employees. We deny these allegations and are vigorously defending against these claims. To the extent any pollution liability is not covered by our insurance or able to be recovered from other parties, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Safety risks associated with the transportation of potentially hazardous materials, such as EO and Co-60, may result in accidents or liabilities that materially affect our results of operations.

Our products, supplies and by-products are transported through a combination of ground, sea and air transport. Co-60 and EO are radioactive and potentially combustible, respectively, and must be handled carefully and in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. An incident in the transportation of our raw materials, products and by-products or our failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to the transfer of such products could lead to human injuries or significant property damage, regulatory repercussions or could make it difficult to fulfill our obligations to our customers, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Our EO and Co-60 raw materials are potentially hazardous and could make our facilities and transportation vehicles targets for terrorists, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. We are subject to stringent requirements regarding how we secure these materials. If our failure to adequately secure these materials leads to their being stolen or materially damaged, our licenses to operate could be suspended resulting in a material adverse effect to our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Any such incident could also have legal consequences, such as violations of regulatory requirements and/or lawsuits for personal injuries, property damage or diminution, and similar claims could result in substantial liability to us. Additionally, loss of control of Co-60 sources by a customer could result in contamination and significant public health consequences.

Potential health risks associated with the use of EO may subject us to future liability claims and other adverse effects.

Potential health risks associated with exposure to EO under certain conditions subject us to the risk of liability claims being made against us by workers, contractors and others, including individuals who reside or have resided near our EO sterilization facilities and employees of our customers. Assessments of the potential health risks of exposure to EO have evolved over time. For example, although EO is present in the environment from a variety of sources and naturally produced by the human body, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“USEPA”) has identified a potential for increased risk of certain cancers from exposure to EO. In 2016, the USEPA published its Integrated Risk Information System toxicity assessment of EO (the “IRIS Assessment”), and in 2018, the USEPA published its most recent National Air Toxics Assessment, which utilized the IRIS Assessment and data collected in 2014, identifying EO as a potential cancer concern in several areas across the country, including areas surrounding our Willowbrook facility and our facilities in Atlanta and Santa Teresa,

 

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New Mexico. Another organization has disagreed with aspects of the IRIS Assessment on the carcinogenic potency of EO, and we expect risk assessments related to EO will continue to evolve and be examined. We can give no assurance as to their impact on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

We are currently the subject of tort lawsuits alleging personal injury by purported exposure to emissions and releases of EO from our facility in Willowbrook and our facility in Atlanta. Additionally, we are defendants in a lawsuit by certain employees of a contract sterilization customer in Georgia who allege personal injury by workplace exposure to EO. We are also defendants in a lawsuit alleging that our Atlanta facility has devalued and harmed the plaintiffs’ use of a real property they own in Smyrna, Georgia and additional property devaluation claims have been threatened. We deny the allegations and are vigorously defending these claims. See “—We are currently defending certain litigation, and we are likely to be subject to additional litigation in the future.” and “Business—Legal Proceedings.” It is likely that we will be subject to other claims by similar groups of plaintiffs in the future relating to any of our current or former facilities. In addition, we have encountered and will likely continue to encounter resistance, protests or other actions in communities where our existing facilities are located or where we seek to establish or expand facilities based on the perceptions of the risk associated with exposure to EO held by some residents and officials of these communities. This publicity may also have other adverse impacts, including damage to our reputation and public pressure against our facilities that may affect our ability to conduct our business.

Our liability insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover any liabilities arising out of such allegations or remain available to us at acceptable costs. A successful claim brought against us in excess of the insurance coverage then available to us could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

We are currently defending certain litigation, and we are likely to be subject to additional litigation in the future.

Our business exposes us to significant potential risk from lawsuits, investigations and other legal proceedings. We are currently pursuing and defending various proceedings and will likely be subject to additional proceedings in the future, including potential litigation regarding the products and services we provide or which we or our predecessors have provided.

We are currently the subject of tort lawsuits alleging personal injury by purported exposure to emissions and releases of EO from our facility in Willowbrook and our facility in Atlanta. Additionally, we are defendants in a lawsuit by certain employees of a contract sterilization customer in Georgia who allege personal injury by purported workplace exposure to EO. We are also defendants in a lawsuit alleging that our Atlanta facility has devalued and harmed the plaintiffs’ use of a real property they own in Smyrna, Georgia and additional property devaluation claims have been threatened. We deny the allegations and are vigorously defending against the claims. However, one or more adverse judgments could result in significant liability for us and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we have been involved in litigation in Georgia against local officials to allow us to resume operations at our Atlanta facility that had been suspended while we installed enhancements to our EO emissions control systems, as well as to challenge local officials’ unsupported claims of loss of neighboring residential property values in tax assessments. See “Business—Legal Proceedings” for more detail on our pending litigation.

In litigation, including those described above, plaintiffs may seek various remedies, including without limitation declaratory and/or injunctive relief; compensatory or punitive damages; restitution, disgorgement, civil penalties, abatement, attorneys’ fees, costs and/or other relief. Settlement demands may seek significant monetary and other remedies, or otherwise be on terms that we do not consider reasonable under the circumstances. In some instances, even if we comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those relating to emission standards, an adverse judgment or outcome may occur based on other applicable laws or principles of common law, including negligence and strict liability, and result in significant liability and reputational damage for us. It is likely that we will be subject to other claims in addition to those described above

 

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by similar groups of plaintiffs in the future relating to any of our current or former facilities or activities. In addition, awards against and settlements by our competitors or publicity associated with our current litigation could incentivize parties to bring additional claims against us.

Any claim brought against us, regardless of its merits, could be costly to defend and could result in an increase of our insurance premiums and exhaust our available insurance coverage. The financial impact of litigation, particularly class action and mass action lawsuits, is difficult to assess or quantify. Some claims brought against us might not be covered by our insurance policies or might exhaust our available insurance coverage for such occurrences. Furthermore, an insurer might refuse coverage, and even where the claim should be covered by insurance, we have significant self-insured retention amounts, which we would have to pay in full before obtaining any insurance proceeds. To the extent our insurance coverage is inadequate and we are not successful in identifying or purchasing additional coverage for such claims, we would have to pay the amount of any settlement or judgment that is in excess of policy limits. We have reached the per occurrence limit of our insurance coverage for claims related to Willowbrook’s EO emissions due to legal costs associated with such claims and have not yet been and likely will not be successful in identifying or purchasing additional coverage for such claims. If any judgments are rendered against us and are upheld on appeal, we would not have insurance coverage to cover such judgment. Claims against us that result in entry of a judgment or we settle that are not covered or not sufficiently covered by insurance policies, or which fall within retained liability under our policies, could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Our business is highly competitive, and if we fail to compete successfully, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

We face competition from other providers of outsourced sterilization and lab services. In addition, some manufacturers have in-house sterilization and lab testing and related capabilities, and further consolidation within our industry and within our customers’ industries could impact our ability to compete. Further, our competitors and potential competitors are attempting to develop alternate technologies, in particular improved x-ray sterilization technology, which would not be reliant on the availability of Co-60. If any of our competitors significantly expand their sterilization or lab testing facility capacity, including as a result of these alternative technologies, it could lead to price fluctuations and competitive pricing pressure, diminish our profitability or lead to changes in our customer relationships across our business segments. We generally compete on the basis of quality, reputation, the cost of sterilization services, the cost of transportation to and from the sterilization facility and processing turnaround time. If our services, supply, support, distribution or cost structure do not enable us to compete successfully, including against alternative technologies, or we are unable to successfully develop and adopt alternative technologies ourselves, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The expansion of alternative sterilization technologies may require us to build new facilities, which can be time-consuming and costly.

If Co-60 source suppliers in other countries, including China, India or Russia, significantly increase their involvement in the global Co-60 sources market, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, several customers of our Nordion business are themselves providers of sterilization services and therefore are competitors of our Sterigenics business. If these customers were to shift to a different source for their supply of Co-60 sources, because they prefer to use a supplier not affiliated with us or for any other reason, it could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Further, if a Nordion customer were to lose market share to a competitor using an alternative sterilization provider, we would similarly lose sales volumes, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Additionally, Nelson Labs faces a wide variety of competitors, including small, specialized niche players, large, broad multinational corporations and internal laboratories that can perform the services that we provide. Shifts in the market that diminish our customers’ preference for outsourcing their testing and large, well-funded competitors entering more directly into the specialized lab services that we provide may adversely affect our business.

 

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Certain of our long-term contracts include variable price clauses and are subject to market changes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The aggregate cost of our direct materials and energy represents a significant portion of our cost of revenues. The prices of the direct materials we utilize vary with market conditions and may be highly volatile. Additionally, the cost of energy for some of our facilities is regulated, and we are required to work with the local utility provider, which prevents us from contracting for a lower rate or seeking an alternate supplier. Although we have attempted, and will continue to attempt, to match increases in the prices of direct materials or energy with corresponding increases in prices for our products and services, our ability to pass through increases in the cost of direct materials or energy to customers is highly dependent upon market conditions and we may not be able to immediately raise such prices, if at all. Most of our customer contracts for sterilization services allow us to pass through our direct material costs, but we may not be able to immediately or completely implement increases in the prices of our products and services. Specifically, there is a risk that raising prices charged to our customers could result in a loss of sales volume. Reactions by our customers and competitors to our price increases could cause us to reevaluate and possibly reverse or reduce such price increases. Any increase in the price of one of these materials or energy could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Allegations of our failure to properly perform our services may expose us to potential product liability claims, recalls, penalties and reputational harm or could otherwise cause a material adverse effect on our business.

We face the risk of financial exposure to product and other liability claims alleging that our failure to adequately perform our services resulted in adverse effects, including product recalls or seizures, adverse publicity and safety alerts. In our Sterigenics business, for example, while our customers are generally responsible for determining the cycle parameters (the levels of temperature, humidity and EO concentration to which products are exposed during the sterilization process and the duration of such exposure) or dosage specifications (the amount of gamma or E-beam irradiation to which products are exposed) for their products, we are required to certify that such cycle or dosage parameters were achieved. If we fail to process a customer’s product in accordance with the cycle parameters, dosage specifications or testing requirements prescribed by the customer, our standard contract requires us to inform our customer of the nonconformance, to reprocess or retest the product if that is a feasible alternative and to reimburse the customer (subject to a maximum) for the cost of any such product which is damaged as a result of the nonconformance. We could be held liable in the future for personal injury, contractual or other damages that are alleged to result from improper or incorrect processing, cycle parameters or dosage specifications, testing or product damage. Even where processing occurred within cycle parameters, we have faced in the past and may face in the future claims of personal injury resulting from processing. In our Nelson Labs business, if we fail to perform our services in accordance with regulatory requirements for medical products, regulatory authorities may take action against us or our customers. Regulatory authorities may disqualify certain analyses from consideration in connection with marketing authorizations, which could result in our customers not being able to rely on our services in connection with their submissions, may subject our customers to additional studies or testing and delays in the development or authorization process, and may lead our customers to take actions such as terminating their contracts with us. We could also face claims that we performed erroneous or out-of-specification testing or data integrity complaints, which could require retesting, and which could result in claims of economic or other loss or which could result in personal injury. We derive limited revenue from government customers and our government contracts may contain additional requirements that may increase our costs of doing business, subject us to additional government scrutiny and expose us to liability for failure to comply with contractual requirements. In our Nordion business, our processing and sale of medical-grade Co-60 used for radiation therapy involve an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims, product recalls and product seizures. In addition, our installation of irradiators for our customers could expose us to design defect product liability claims, whether or not such claims are valid. A product liability judgment against us could also result in substantial and unexpected costs, affect customer confidence in our products, damage our reputation and divert management’s attention from other responsibilities.

Although we maintain product and professional liability insurance coverage in amounts we believe are customary, there can be no assurance that this level of coverage is adequate or that we will be able to continue to

 

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maintain our existing insurance or obtain comparable insurance at a reasonable cost, if at all. Our product and professional liability insurance also does not cover matters related to EO emissions. A product recall or seizure or a partially or completely uninsured judgment against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to extensive regulatory requirements and routine regulatory audits in our operations. We must receive permits, licenses and/or regulatory clearance or approval for our operations. Compliance with these regulations is costly, and failure to comply with all laws and regulations or to receive or maintain permits, licenses, clearances or approvals may hurt our revenues, profitability, financial condition or value.

Our industry is characterized by evolving regulations, and our operations are subject to extensive regulation in the United States and other countries where we do business. We are regulated by national and local agencies with jurisdiction over a number of areas directly or indirectly related to our businesses, including environmental, nuclear safety, homeland or national security, worker safety and health, food, drug and device manufacturing and marketing, transportation, drug enforcement (governing the handling of controlled substances) and agriculture, fish and wildlife. These laws and regulations regulate our use of potentially hazardous materials, such as EO and Co-60, and can require us to carefully manage, control emissions of or limit human exposure to, these materials. For example, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) regulations and similar laws in other jurisdictions limit worker exposure to EO. In addition, FDA regulations dictate the acceptable amount of EO residue on different types of sterilized products. In most jurisdictions, we are required to maintain and operate pollution control equipment to minimize emissions and releases of EO. Regulations issued by OSHA, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (the “NRC”) and other agencies also require that equipment used at our facilities be designed and operated in a manner that is safe. The use of EO for medical device sterilization is regulated by the USEPA under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”) and the Clean Air Act (the “CAA”). Our supplier maintains FIFRA registrations for EO as a medical device sterilant for users of EO across the United States. The USEPA is in the process of reviewing EO’s FIFRA re-registration eligibility in accordance with the provisions of FIFRA. As a condition of continued registration, the USEPA may require enhancements to the processes and equipment for use of EO as a medical device sterilant. The USEPA is also expected to propose updated National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (“NESHAP”) air emission regulations for commercial EO sterilization facilities, which have not yet been published and with which sterilization facilities like ours will be required to comply. We expect to incur capital costs for enhancements to our equipment and to implement process automation and emission control enhancements to comply with these and other changing requirements. If the future regulations differ from our current expectation, they may require additional modifications and capital costs beyond what we have budgeted for, which could be material. Any future failure of the USEPA to allow reregistration of EO would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

In the United States, our gamma irradiation facilities are heavily regulated, including by the NRC and state regulations. These laws and regulations specify the requirements for, among other things, maximum radiation doses, system designs, safety features and alarms and employee monitoring, testing and reporting. While some specific requirements are different in the various jurisdictions other than the United States, the fundamental concepts are consistent, since all are signatories to the International Atomic Energy Agency (“IAEA”) conventions and have adopted safety standards from the IAEA and recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The design, construction and operation of sterilization and lab testing facilities are highly regulated and require government licenses, including environmental approvals and permits, and may be subject to the imposition of related conditions that vary by jurisdiction. In some cases, these approvals and permits entail periodic review. We cannot predict whether all licenses required for a new facility will be granted or whether the conditions associated with such licenses will be achievable. Changes in these laws and regulations have the potential to increase our costs.

Additionally, our operations in the United States and the majority of our facilities outside the United States (to the extent we are processing a product in that facility that will end up in the U.S. market) are regulated by the

 

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FDA. We are also regulated by other health regulatory authorities in other countries. Specifically, these operations include some of our sterilization and product testing activities that may constitute “manufacturing” activities and are subject to FDA requirements. The FDA may issue Form 483 findings or warning letters or take other administrative or enforcement actions for noncompliance with FDA laws and regulations and the issues raised by such warning letters require significant resources and time to correct. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business.

To the extent Nordion in the future ceases to operate its facility in Kanata, Canada, Nordion will be responsible for the radiological decommissioning of such facility, including in respect of the portion leased by BWX Technologies, Inc. (“BWXT”) in connection with its acquisition of the Medical Isotopes business to the extent any contamination precedes such transaction. In addition, if Sterigenics in the future ceases to operate any of its irradiation facilities, it will be responsible for decommissioning costs in respect of such facilities. We currently provide financial assurance for approximately $50 million of such decommissioning liabilities in the aggregate in the form of letters of credit, surety bonds or other surety. Such potential decommissioning liabilities may be greater than currently estimated if additional irradiation facilities are licensed, unexpected radioactive contamination of those facilities occur, regulatory requirements change, waste volume increases, or decommissioning cost factors such as waste disposal costs increase.

See “Business—Regulation” for more information on the regulatory requirements of our businesses.

Compliance with these regulations, as well as our own voluntary programs that relate to maintaining the safety of our employees and facilities as well as the environment, may be difficult, burdensome or expensive. Any change in these regulations, the interpretation of such regulations as well as our customers’ perception of such changes will require us to make adaptations that may subject us to additional costs, and ultimate costs and the timing of such costs may be difficult to accurately predict and could be material. Regulatory agencies may refuse to grant approval or clearance or may require the provision of additional data, and regulatory processes may be time consuming and costly, and their outcome may be uncertain in certain of the countries in which we operate. Regulatory agencies may also change policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, each of which could impact our ability to provide our services or increase our costs. Additionally, local regulatory authorities may change the way in which they interpret and apply local regulations in response to negative public pressure about our facilities. For example, officials stopped operations at one of our facilities purportedly to review our fire and building code status and certificate of occupancy.

Our failure to comply with the regulatory requirements of these agencies may subject us to administratively or judicially imposed sanctions. These sanctions include, among others, warning letters, fines, civil penalties, criminal penalties, injunctions, debarment, product seizure or detention and total or partial suspension of operations, sale and/or promotion. While we strive to comply with these regulatory requirements, we have not always been and may not always be in compliance and, as a result, can be subject to significant civil and criminal fines and penalties, including the shutdown of our operations or the suspension of our licenses, permits or registrations. See “Business—Legal Proceedings” and “—Potential health risks associated with the use of EO may subject us to future liability claims and other adverse effects.” The failure to receive or maintain, or delays in the receipt of, relevant U.S. or international regulatory qualifications could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Our operations are subject to a variety of business continuity hazards and risks, including our reliance on the use and sale of products and services from single locations, any of which could interrupt production or operations or otherwise adversely affect our performance, results or value.

In addition to the other risks described in this prospectus, our operations are subject to business continuity hazards and risks that include explosions, fires, earthquakes, inclement weather and other natural disasters; utility or other mechanical failures; unscheduled downtime; labor difficulties; disruption of communications; terrorist, security breach or other workplace violence event; changes in the use of government-owned reactors, including repurposing nuclear facilities; and pandemics or other public health crises.

 

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It can be costly to ship products long distances for the purpose of sterilization; therefore, our ability to offer a full range of sterilization services close to our customers’ manufacturing and distribution centers worldwide is critical for our business. An adverse occurrence at one of our facilities or the facilities of a supplier or customer could damage our business. While other facilities in our network may have the capacity to service our customers that had been served by an affected facility, we may not be able to transfer all interrupted services. The stringent regulations and requirements we are subject to regarding the manufacture of our products and provision of services and the complexities involved with processing of Co-60 may prevent or delay us from establishing additional or replacement sources for our production facilities. Any event, including those listed above or other circumstances that results in a prolonged business disruption or shutdown to one or more of our facilities, could create conditions that prevent, or significantly and adversely affect, our receiving, processing, manufacturing or shipping products at existing levels, or at all. Such events could adversely affect our sales, increase our expenses, create potential liabilities and/or damage our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

In addition, since we obtain Co-60 from a limited number of reactors, if any of their facilities were to be seriously damaged or have their production materially decrease due to a natural disaster or other adverse occurrence, our access to Co-60 would be materially affected and we may be unable to meet all the needs of our customers. See “—We depend on a limited number of counterparties that provide the materials and resources we need to operate our business. Any disruption in the availability of, or increases in the price of, EO, Co-60 or our other direct materials, services and supplies, including as a result of current geopolitical instability arising from U.S. relations with Russia and related sanctions, may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.”

Further, governmental action may disrupt the operations of our facilities that process potentially hazardous materials. For example, in February 2019 the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (“IEPA”) issued a seal order temporarily shutting down our sterilization activities at our Willowbrook facility, and in October 2019, county officials ordered our Atlanta facility, the operations of which we had voluntarily suspended at the time, remain closed until county approval is obtained. Although our Atlanta facility was allowed to resume operations under a Temporary Restraining Order imposed on county officials in April 2020, our facility could be forced to close again upon the resolution of related litigation. The occurrence of any of these or other events might disrupt or shut down operations or otherwise adversely impact the production or profitability of a particular facility or our operations as a whole.

While we maintain insurance policies covering, among other things, physical damage, business interruptions and liability resulting from our services in amounts that we believe are customary for our industries, our insurance coverage may be inadequate or unavailable and we could incur uninsured losses and liabilities arising from such events.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had and could continue to have adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations, which could be material.

The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the governmental responses, has had a negative effect on the global economy, disrupting the financial markets and creating increasing volatility, and has disrupted our operations. For example, during the pandemic, there has been an increase in deferred elective procedures, which negatively impacts demand for some of our products and services as a result of a decrease in the need for sterilized medical devices used in these procedures. Further, although our operations are considered “essential” in all locations where we operate, we have experienced, and may experience in the future, temporary facility closures while awaiting appropriate government approvals in certain jurisdictions or delays in delivering products or services to customers. The extent to which our operations will be impacted by the outbreak will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including mandatory closures of our facilities imposed by government authorities, work-from-home orders and social distancing protocols or other currently unforeseen restrictions that could adversely affect our ability to adequately staff and maintain our operations, and those effects could be material. For example, we experienced delayed

 

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deliveries at certain locations as a result of governmental travel restrictions enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We have implemented business continuity planning, including to transition staff off-site to decrease exposure risk and to manage supply chain risk for critical materials, but we cannot guarantee that these measures will be successful. If the COVID-19 outbreak disrupts our supply chain, it could adversely impact our ability to secure supplies for our facilities, which could adversely affect our operations, and those effects could be material. The pandemic and the response thereto continue to evolve, and we cannot at this time forecast its ultimate duration, severity or impact to our business, our customers or our supply chain. This negative impact could continue for an extended period of time or more severely impact our financial condition and results of operations, and continued weak or worsening economic conditions could negatively impact consumer demand for our products and services. Future pandemics and public crises could impact our business in a similar or worse manner. See “—Our operations are subject to a variety of business continuity hazards and risks, including our reliance on the use and sale of products and services from single locations, any of which could interrupt production or operations or otherwise adversely affect our performance, results or value.”

If we are unable to increase capacity at existing facilities and build new facilities in a timely and cost-effective manner, we may not achieve our expected revenue growth or profitability or such revenue growth and profitability, if any, could be delayed.

Our growth strategy depends on expanding capacity in Europe, the Americas and Asia, which may include building new facilities and expanding existing facilities. The construction or expansion of modern and safe sterilization facilities requires significant expenditures. Delay in the review and licensing process for a new facility could impair or delay our ability to develop that facility or increase the cost so substantially that the facility becomes unattractive to us. Any failure to procure and maintain the necessary licenses would adversely affect ongoing development, construction and continuing operation of our facilities. Additionally, even when we maintain the necessary licenses and are in compliance with applicable regulations, we may be unable to maintain or expand our operations at existing facilities, or otherwise execute on our growth strategy, due to negative publicity or community resistance. Suspensions and closures of our facilities have in the past and may continue to impact our results of operations, and the effects could be material. Those new facilities that are constructed and begin operations may not meet our return expectations due to schedule delays, cost overruns or revenue shortfalls, or they may not generate the capacity that we anticipate or result in the receipt of revenue in the originally anticipated time period or at all. We may not maintain revenue growth or profitability, or such growth, if any, could be delayed if we are not successful in continuing to expand capacity. Additionally, if future demand trends warrant capacity in geographic areas that we have not targeted for new growth, we may be unable to capitalize on opportunities in a timely manner.

We occupy many of our facilities under long-term leases, and we may be unable to renew our leases at the end of their terms.

Many of our facilities, including many of our EO facilities and some of our gamma facilities, are located on leased premises. The terms of our leases vary in length and expire over a period ranging from 2021 to 2040, with options to renew for specified periods of time. At the end of the lease term and any renewal period for a facility, we may be unable to renew the lease without substantial additional cost, if at all. For example, in September 2019, we were unable to reach an agreement to renew the lease on our EO processing facility in Willowbrook, following community pressure resulting from negative publicity surrounding our Willowbrook facility. If we are unable to renew our facility leases, we may be required to relocate or close a facility. Relocating a facility involves significant expense in connection with the movement and installation of specialized equipment and any necessary recertification or licensing with regulatory authorities. Closing a facility, even briefly to relocate, would reduce the sales that such facility would have contributed to our revenues and could negatively impact our customer relations. Any such relocation or closure could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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We conduct sales and distribution operations on a worldwide basis and are subject to a variety of risks associated with doing business outside the United States.

We maintain significant international operations, including operations in China, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica and other countries in Europe and Asia. As a result, we are subject to a number of risks and complications associated with international sales, services and other operations, as well as risks associated with U.S. foreign policy. These include:

 

   

difficulties associated with compliance with numerous, potentially conflicting and frequently complex and changing laws in multiple jurisdictions, e.g., with respect to environmental matters, intellectual property, privacy and data protection, corrupt practices, embargoes, trade sanctions, competition, employment and licensing;

 

   

general economic, social and political conditions in countries where we operate, including international and U.S. trade policies and currency exchange rate fluctuations;

 

   

tax and other laws that restrict our ability to use tax credits, offset gains or repatriate funds;

 

   

currency restrictions, transfer pricing regulations and adverse tax consequences, which may affect our ability to transfer capital and profits;

 

   

inflation, deflation and stagflation in any country in which we have a manufacturing facility;

 

   

foreign customers with longer payment cycles than customers in the United States; and

 

   

imposition of or increases in customs duties and other tariffs.

We operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including in countries that do not have as strong a commitment to anti-corruption and ethical behavior that is required by U.S. laws or by our corporate policies. Based on the nature of our products, these activities involve potential interaction with government agencies, public officials or state-owned enterprises. We are subject to the risk that we, our U.S. employees or our employees located in other jurisdictions or any third party that we engage to do work on our behalf may take action determined to be in violation of anti-corruption laws in any jurisdiction in which we conduct business. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (the “CFPOA”) prohibit corruptly providing anything of value to foreign officials for the purposes of obtaining or retaining business or securing any improper business advantage. We may deal with both governments and government-owned business enterprises, the employees of which are considered foreign officials for purposes of the FCPA and other applicable anti-corruption laws. The provisions of the Bribery Act extend beyond bribery of foreign public officials and are more onerous than the FCPA in a number of other respects. Any violation of the FCPA, the CFPOA, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 (the “Bribery Act”) or any similar anti-corruption law or regulation could result in substantial fines, sanctions or civil and/or criminal penalties, debarment from business dealings with certain governments or government agencies or restrictions on the marketing of our products in certain countries, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. If these anticorruption laws or our internal policies were to be violated, our reputation and operations could also be substantially harmed. Further, detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.

Compliance with multiple, and potentially conflicting, international laws and regulations, including anticorruption laws and exchange controls may be difficult, burdensome or expensive. While our employees and agents are required to comply with these laws, our internal policies and procedures may not always prevent violations. Further, in connection with past and future acquisitions by us, there is a risk of successor liability relating to such laws in connection with prior actions or alleged actions of an acquired company. Such matters or allegations related to such matters could adversely affect our reputation and the burden and cost associated with defending or resolving such matters could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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Further, as a result of our global operations, we generate a significant portion of our revenue and incur a significant portion of our expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the euro, the Brazilian real, the British pound sterling, the Chinese yuan, the Thai baht, the Mexican peso, the Danish krone, the Costa Rica colon and the Canadian dollar. Our results of operations are impacted by currency exchange rate fluctuations to the extent that we are unable to match net revenues received in foreign currencies with expenses incurred in the same currency. For example, where we have significantly more expenses than net revenues generated in a foreign currency, our profit from operations in that location would be adversely affected in the event that the U.S. dollar depreciates against that foreign currency.

We may be adversely affected by global and regional economic and political instability.

We may be adversely affected by global and regional economic and political conditions. The uncertainty or deterioration of the global economic and political environment could adversely affect us. Customers may modify, delay or cancel plans to purchase our products and services and suppliers may significantly and rapidly increase their prices or reduce their output because of cash flow problems. Any inability of current or potential customers to purchase or pay for our products due to, among other things, declining economic conditions as a result of inflation, rising interest rates, changes in spending patterns at medical device, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and the effects of governmental initiatives to manage economic conditions may have a negative impact on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Overall demand for our products could be reduced as a result of a global economic recession or political unrest, especially in such areas as the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and other end markets that we serve.

We depend upon our key personnel, the loss of whom could adversely affect our operations. If we fail to attract and retain the talent required for our business, our business could be materially harmed.

We depend to a significant degree on our ability to hire and retain highly qualified personnel with expertise in our industries. The loss of services from any of our key personnel may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Competition for qualified employees in the industries in which we operate is intense. We may not be able to attract and retain these individuals on acceptable terms or at all, and our inability to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to significant regulatory oversight of our import and export operations due to the nature of some of our product offerings.

Our products are subject to U.S. laws and regulations that may limit, restrict or require a license to import or export (or re-export from other countries). We are also subject to the export and import laws of those foreign jurisdictions in which we operate, sell our products into and from which we source our materials, including Co-60. In addition, if we introduce new products, we may need to obtain licenses or approvals from the United States and other governments to ship them into foreign countries. Because of increasing security controls and regulations regarding the shipment of materials including Co-60, it is likely that we may encounter additional regulations affecting the transportation, storage, sale and import/export of radioactive materials. Further, any delay or inability to obtaining these permits and licenses could delay our prevent us from fulfilling our obligations to our customers, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Additionally, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control and other relevant agencies of the U.S. government administer certain laws and regulations that restrict U.S. persons and, in some instances, non-U.S. persons, from conducting activities, transacting business with or making investments in certain countries, or with governments, entities and individuals subject to U.S. economic sanctions. Our international operations subject us to these laws and regulations, which are complex, restrict our business dealings with certain countries, governments, entities and individuals and are constantly changing. Penalties for non-compliance with these complex laws and regulations can be significant and include substantial fines,

 

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sanctions or civil and/or criminal penalties and violations can result in adverse publicity, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our business may be subject to system interruptions, cyber security breaches and unauthorized data disclosures.

We increasingly rely upon technology systems and infrastructure. Our technology systems and infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to breakdowns or other interruptions by fire, power loss, system malfunction, unauthorized access and other events. Likewise, data privacy breaches by employees and others with both permitted and unauthorized access to our systems may pose a risk that sensitive data may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public, rendered inaccessible or permanently lost. The increasing use and evolution of technology creates additional opportunities for the unintentional dissemination or intentional destruction of confidential or proprietary information stored in our systems or portable media or storage devices. We could also experience a business interruption, information theft or reputational damage from industrial espionage attacks, malware or other cyber incidents or data breaches, which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to data breaches, either internally or at our third-party providers or other business partners. Such incidents could compromise our trade secrets or other confidential information and result in such information being disclosed to third parties and becoming less valuable. Additionally, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a majority of our office employees are working remotely, which may increase the risk of cyber incidents or data breaches. Breaches in security, system interruptions and unauthorized disclosure of data, whether perceived or actual, could adversely affect our businesses, assets, revenues, brands and reputation and result in fines, litigation, regulatory proceedings and investigations, increased insurance premiums, remediation efforts, indemnification expenditures, lost revenues and other potential liabilities. We have taken steps to protect the security and integrity of the information we collect and have policies and procedures in place dealing with data privacy and security, but there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns, system failures, breaches in our systems or other cyber incidents or otherwise be fully effective. Any such breakdown, breach or incident could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations, and our cyber insurance may not cover such risks or may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur.

Part of our growth strategy is to pursue strategic transactions, including acquisitions, which subjects us to risks that could harm our business and we may not be able to find suitable acquisition targets or integrate strategic acquisitions successfully into our existing business.

As part of our strategy, we have in the past and may in the future seek to grow our business through acquisitions, and any such acquisition may be significant. Any future growth through acquisitions will depend in part upon the continued availability of suitable acquisition candidates at favorable prices and upon advantageous terms and conditions, which may not be available to us, as well as sufficient funds from our cash on hand, cash flow from operations, existing debt facilities and additional indebtedness to fund these acquisitions.

Not only is the identification of such suitable acquisition candidates difficult and competitive, but these transactions, including the acquisitions completed in recent years also involve numerous risks, including the diversion of management’s attention and their ability to:

 

 

successfully integrate acquired facilities, companies, products, systems or personnel into our existing business, especially with respect to businesses or operations that are outside of the United States;

 

 

minimize any potential interruption to our ongoing business;

 

 

successfully enter categories and markets in which we may have limited or no prior experience;

 

 

achieve expected synergies and obtain the desired financial or strategic benefits;

 

 

detect and address any financial or control deficiencies of the acquired company;

 

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retain key relationships with employees, customers, partners and suppliers of acquired companies as well as our own employees, customers, partners and suppliers; and

 

 

maintain uniform compliance standards, controls, procedures and policies throughout acquired companies.

Companies, businesses or operations acquired or joint ventures created may not be profitable or may not achieve revenue and profitability levels that would justify the investments made. Recent and future acquisitions could also result in the incurrence of indebtedness, subject to the restrictions contained in the documents governing our then-existing indebtedness. See “—Our substantial leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, expose us to interest rate risk to the extent the interest rate on variable rate debt increases and prevent us from meeting our obligations under our existing and future indebtedness.”

Recent and future acquisitions could also result in the assumption of contingent liabilities, material expenses related to certain intangible assets, increased operating expenses and compliance issues under international laws and regulations, including antitrust laws, anti-corruption laws, the FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, to the extent that the economic benefits associated with any of our acquisitions diminish in the future, we may be required to record additional write-downs of goodwill, intangible assets or other assets associated with such acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Certain of the acquisition agreements by which we have acquired companies require the former owners to indemnify us against certain liabilities related to the operation of the company before we acquired it. In most of these agreements, however, the liability of the former owners is limited, and certain former owners may be unable to meet their indemnification responsibilities. We cannot assure you that these indemnification provisions will protect us fully or at all, and as a result we may face unexpected liabilities that adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

In particular, as part of the acquisition by BWXT of our Medical Isotopes business, we lease one of our Canadian facilities to BWXT through July 2038, and BWXT operates under our Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (“CNSC”) license in an arrangement we expect to continue through 2021. If BWXT fails to comply with CNSC regulations, we could be liable, and although we are indemnified by BWXT for any such failures, such indemnification may be insufficient to cover any liabilities.

Our ability to realize the benefits we anticipate from our strategic transactions, including acquisition activities, anticipated cost savings and additional sales opportunities, will depend in large part upon whether we are able to integrate such businesses efficiently and effectively. If we are unable to successfully integrate the operations of acquired businesses into our business or on the timeline we expect, including with respect to our ongoing integration of Iotron, we may be unable to realize the sales growth, cost synergies and other anticipated benefits we expect to achieve as a result of such transactions and our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation.

Pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we will be required to furnish a report by our management on the effectiveness our internal control over financial reporting beginning with our second filing of an Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC after we become a public company. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. However, we may not be required to have our independent registered public accounting firm attest to the

 

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effectiveness of our internal controls until as late as our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2025. At such time, if we then have a material weakness, we would receive an adverse opinion regarding our internal control over financial reporting from our independent registered accounting firm.

We have begun the process to identify and implement actions to improve the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. The process of reviewing and improving our internal controls is both costly and challenging. We will need to (i) continue to dedicate internal resources, including through hiring additional financial and accounting personnel, (ii) potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, (iii) continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, (iv) validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and (v) implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. This process may also require substantial attention from our management team, which may negatively impact other matters that are important to our business.

If we identify a material weakness in connection with this ongoing assessment and we fail to remediate these identified material weaknesses within the prescribed period, we will be unable to assert that our internal controls over financial report are effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system and the hiring of additional personnel. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of shares of our common stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

We rely on intellectual property rights to maintain our competitive position and third parties may claim that we infringe or misappropriate their intellectual property rights.

We rely on proprietary technology and are dependent on our ability to protect such technology. We rely primarily on trade secrets and non-disclosure and confidentiality arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights, including such rights that relate to our Nelson Labs business and its lab testing services. The efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology may not be sufficient or effective. Third parties, including current or former employees, consultants, contractors, customers or partners, who have access to our confidential information (including our trade secrets and know-how), may unintentionally or willfully disclose our confidential information to others, and there can be no assurance that our trade secret rights and non-disclosure and confidentiality arrangements will provide meaningful protection of our proprietary technology. There can also be no assurance that others will not independently develop similar or superior technologies or duplicate any technology developed by us. Effective protection of intellectual property rights may not be available in every jurisdiction in which our products and services are made available, and monitoring unauthorized use and disclosures of our proprietary technology or confidential information can be difficult and expensive. Actions to enforce our intellectual property rights could lead to disputes with third parties, including our customers, and could impact our future ability to gain business. Furthermore, legal proceedings to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights could result in narrowing the scope of our intellectual property rights or substantial cost to us, and they may be time consuming and divert resources and the attention of management and key personnel, and the outcomes of such actions may be unpredictable.

Additionally, we cannot be certain that the conduct of our business does not and will not infringe or misappropriate intellectual property rights of others. From time to time, we may become subject to claims,

 

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allegations and legal proceedings, including by means of counterclaims, that we infringe or misappropriate intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties. Such legal proceedings involving intellectual property rights are highly uncertain, can involve complex legal and scientific questions and may divert resources and the attention of management and key personnel. Our failure to prevail against infringement or misappropriation claims brought against us could also result in judgments awarding substantial damages against us, including possible treble damages and attorneys’ fees, and could result in reputational harm. Judgments that result in equitable or injunctive relief could cause us to delay or cease selling or providing certain products or services or otherwise harm our operations. We also may have to seek third party licenses to intellectual property, which may be unavailable, require payment of significant royalties or be available only at commercially unreasonable, unfavorable or otherwise unacceptable terms.

If we are unable to adequately protect, establish, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights or if we are subject to any infringement or misappropriation claims, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

We are subject to complex and rapidly evolving data privacy and security laws and regulations and any ineffective compliance efforts with such laws and regulations may adversely impact our business.

We must comply with laws and regulations in federal and state governments in multiple jurisdictions governing the collection, dissemination, retention, access, use, protection, security and disposal of personal data, which mostly consists of our employees’ data. The interpretation and application of many existing or recently enacted privacy and data protection laws and regulations in the United States, the European Union and elsewhere are uncertain and fluid, and it is possible that such laws and regulations may be interpreted or applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing practices. Companies are under increased regulatory scrutiny relating to data privacy and security. Any actual or perceived breach of such laws or regulations may subject us to claims and may lead to administrative, civil or criminal lability, as well as reputational harm. Moreover, these laws are evolving and are generally becoming stricter. For example, activities conducted from our EU facilities or related to products and services that we may offer to EU users or customers are subject the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679), which provides for enhanced data privacy obligations and fines of up to the higher of 4% of annual worldwide revenues or €20 million. Outside of the United States and the European Union, many jurisdictions have adopted or are adopting new data privacy laws that impose further onerous compliance requirements, such as data localization, which prohibit companies from storing outside the jurisdiction data relating to resident individuals. The proliferation of such laws may result in conflicting and contradictory requirements and there can be no assurance that the measures we have taken will be sufficient for compliance with such various laws and regulations. Complying with these various laws is an ongoing commitment and could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business. Privacy-related claims or lawsuits initiated by governmental bodies, employees, customers or third parties, whether meritorious or not, could adversely affect our businesses, assets, revenues, brands and reputation and result in fines, litigation, regulatory proceedings, regulatory investigations, increased insurance premiums, remediation efforts, indemnification expenditures, lost revenues and other potential liabilities. We take steps to comply with applicable data privacy and security laws, regulations and standards and applicable privacy policies, but there can be no assurance that our compliance efforts will be effective. Any such failure to comply could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

We have a history of net losses and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We have a history of net operating losses, including a net loss of $20.8 million and $5.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability for the current or any future fiscal year. Our ability to achieve and maintain profitability depends on a number of factors, including the growth rate of the sterilization and lab services industries, the price of our products and services, the cost to provide our products and services and the competitiveness of our products and services. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including due to principal and interest expense

 

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related to our substantial indebtedness and the other risks described in this prospectus, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown events. In addition, as a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. As a result, our operations may not achieve profitability in the future and, even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to maintain or increase it.

We may incur impairment charges on our goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to Accounting Standards Codification Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, which requires that goodwill and other intangible assets that have an indefinite useful life be evaluated at least annually for impairment. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives must also be evaluated for impairment between the annual tests if an event or change in circumstance occurs that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying amount. We have substantial goodwill and other intangible assets. If in the future, we determine that there has been an impairment, our financial results for the relevant period would be reduced by the amount of the non-cash impairment charge, net of any income tax effects, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Unionization efforts and labor regulations in certain countries in which we operate could materially increase our costs or limit our flexibility.

Certain of our employees in non-U.S. markets are represented by works councils or labor unions and work under collective bargaining or similar agreements, some of which are subject to periodic renegotiation. Efforts have been made from time to time to unionize portions of our workforce in the United States. Unionization efforts, new collective bargaining agreements or work stoppages could materially increase our costs, reduce our net revenues or limit our flexibility. Certain legal obligations in these markets require us to contribute amounts to retirement funds and pension plans and restrict our ability to dismiss employees. Future regulations or court interpretations established in the countries in which we conduct our operations could increase our costs and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Both of the collective bargaining agreements applicable to Brazilian employees were finalized and certified by the Ministry of Labor in 2017. The collective bargaining agreement applicable to Canadian employees located in Kanata expired on March 31, 2020. Negotiations have been postponed during the COVID-19 pandemic and are set to commence in December 2020. Failure to renew the agreements on similar terms could result in labor disruptions and/or increased labor costs, which could negatively affect our business and operations.

Our business is subject to a variety of laws involving the cannabis industry, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business.

We provide bioburden reduction irradiation services for the processing of cannabis, primarily in Canada and certain European countries. The commercial recreational cannabis industry is a relatively new industry in Canada, and in Canada, the Cannabis Regulations is a regime that has only been in effect in its current form since October 2018. Likewise, laws and regulations governing cannabis in European countries have evolved rapidly over recent years. In the United States, marijuana (all parts of the cannabis plant other than those parts that are exempt) is a Schedule I controlled substance under federal law. Our activity related to marijuana in the United States is de minimis and has been limited to the irradiation of marijuana for clinical research under Drug Enforcement Administration authorization in compliance with applicable U.S. federal law. In other countries in which the cultivation and use of marijuana is legalized, most notably in Canada, our operations include irradiation services for recreational and medical marijuana. As laws in the United States, Canada, Europe and other jurisdictions evolve, our activities in these spaces may face additional regulations that may be costly or burdensome to be in compliance.

 

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Government or private civil antitrust actions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The antitrust laws prohibit, among other things, any joint conduct among competitors that would lessen competition in the marketplace. We believe that we are in compliance with the legal requirements imposed by the antitrust laws. However, a governmental or private civil action alleging the improper exchange of information, or unlawful participation in price maintenance or other unlawful or anticompetitive activity, even if unfounded, could be costly to defend and could harm our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Challenges to our tax positions in U.S. or non-U.S. jurisdictions, the interpretation and application of recent U.S. tax legislation or other changes in U.S. or non-U.S. taxation of our operations could harm our business, revenue and financial results.

We operate in a number of tax jurisdictions globally, including in the United States at the federal, state and local levels, and in many other countries, and we therefore are subject to review and potential audit by tax authorities in these various jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities, and tax authorities may disagree with tax positions we take and challenge our tax positions. Successful unilateral or multi-jurisdictional actions by various tax authorities, including in the context of our current or future corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements, may increase our worldwide effective tax rate, result in additional taxes or other costs or have other material consequences, which could harm our business, revenue and financial results.

Our effective tax rate may also change from year to year or vary materially from our expectations based on changes or uncertainties in the mix of activities and income allocated or earned among various jurisdictions, changes in tax laws and the applicable tax rates in these jurisdictions (including future tax laws that may become material), tax treaties between countries, our eligibility for benefits under those tax treaties and the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. Such changes could result in an increase in the effective tax rate applicable to all or a portion of our income, impose new limitations on deductions, credits or other tax benefits or make other changes that may adversely affect our business, cash flows or financial performance. For example, if we are unable to fully realize the benefit of interest expense incurred in future periods as a result of recent tax law changes (as discussed below), we may need to recognize a valuation allowance on any related deferred tax assets, which would impact our annual effective income tax rate.

In particular, on December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was signed into law. The legislation significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, lowering the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, implementing a modified territorial tax system and imposing a transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries (“Section 965 Transition Tax”). Certain changes established by the TCJA increased our effective tax rate in prior years, including a new income inclusion item for global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) and the Section 965 Transition Tax on our accumulated offshore earnings held in cash and illiquid assets. Additional changes have impacted the timing of our recognition of certain items of loss and deduction, including a new limitation on the company’s deduction for business interest expense and increased bonus depreciation from 50% to 100% for certain qualified property.

Furthermore, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was enacted on March 27, 2020 in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 and its consequences. The CARES Act introduced substantial changes to the U.S. tax code, the overall impact of which on our business is uncertain. For example, among other changes, the CARES Act increased the interest expense deductibility limitations and waived certain limitations on the use of net operating losses, in each case, temporarily.

On July 23, 2020, final regulations were published that exempt certain income subject to a high rate of foreign tax from inclusion under GILTI for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017.

The cumulative impact of these and other changes in tax law is uncertain and our business and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Liquidity

Our substantial leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, expose us to interest rate risk to the extent the interest rate on our variable rate debt increases and prevent us from meeting our obligations under our existing and future indebtedness.

We are highly leveraged. As of September 30, 2020, on an adjusted basis after giving effect to this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, our total indebtedness (including that of our wholly owned subsidiaries) was approximately $1,975.7 million, all of which is indebtedness of Sotera Health Holdings, LLC that is guaranteed by the company and certain of its other subsidiaries. We also had an additional $190.0 million of unutilized capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility at that date (without giving effect to $64.3 million of letters of credit that were outstanding). See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”

Our estimated debt service obligations for the next 12 months on an as adjusted basis after giving effect to this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom would be $139.5 million, based on the outstanding principal amount of indebtedness of $1,975.7 million as of September 30, 2020. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, our cash flow used for debt service totaled $174.6 million, which includes scheduled quarterly principal payments of the Term Loan (as defined below) of $10.6 million and interest payments on our debt of $164.0 million. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, our cash flows from operating activities totaled $98.7 million, which includes interest paid of $164.0 million. As such, our cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest) amounted to $262.7 million. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, cash payments used to service our debt represented approximately 66% of our net cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest). As adjusted to give effect to this offering and the application of net proceeds therefrom, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, our cash flow used for debt service would have totaled $107.1 million, our cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest) would have amounted to $195.2 million and cash payments used to service our debt would have represented approximately 55% of our net cash flows from operating activities (before giving effect to the payment of interest).

Our high degree of leverage could have important consequences for you, including:

 

   

making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations;

 

   

increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions;

 

   

requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be used to pay off principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities;

 

   

exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as our indebtedness is at variable interest rates;

 

   

restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;

 

   

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;

 

   

limiting our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less highly leveraged; and

 

   

causing us to pay higher rates if we need to refinance our indebtedness at a time when prevailing market interest rates are unfavorable.

We and our subsidiaries may obtain substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in SHH’s senior secured credit facilities (the “Senior Secured Credit Facilities”) and the indentures governing SHH’s senior secured first-lien notes (the “First Lien Notes”) and SHH’s senior secured second-lien notes (the “Second Lien Notes”). If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify.

 

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Because we are exposed to interest rate risk through our variable-rate borrowings, we have entered into and may, in the future, enter into additional interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility and interest rate cap agreements. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to any of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk. Further, current interest rates are relatively low. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on any variable rate indebtedness will increase even if the amount borrowed remains the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. Based on our indebtedness outstanding as of September 30, 2020, on an adjusted basis after giving effect to this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, a 1% increase in interest rates would result in an approximately $1.2 million increase in total annual interest expense under our outstanding debt obligations.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

The Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes contain various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. These covenants limit our ability and our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:

 

   

incur additional indebtedness or issue certain shares of preferred stock;

 

   

pay dividends on, repurchase or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or make other restricted payments;

 

   

make certain investments and acquisitions;

 

   

sell or transfer assets;

 

   

grant liens on our assets;

 

   

consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and

 

   

enter into certain transactions with our affiliates.

In addition, under certain circumstances we are required to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios and other financial condition tests under certain covenants in our Senior Secured Credit Facilities. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.” Our ability to meet those financial ratios and tests can be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial market and industry conditions, and we cannot give assurance that we will be able to satisfy such ratios and tests when required.

A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under each of our Senior Secured Credit Facilities and/or the indentures governing the First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the lenders and/or noteholders, as applicable, could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes to be immediately due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit. If we were unable to repay those amounts, the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or the indentures governing the First Lien Notes and Second Lien Notes could foreclose on the collateral granted to them to secure each such indebtedness. We have pledged substantially all of our assets as collateral under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the indentures governing the First Lien Notes and Second Lien Notes.

Our cash flows may not be sufficient to service our indebtedness, and if we are unable to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, we may be required to seek other financing alternatives, which may not be successful.

Our ability to make timely payments of principal and interest on our debt obligations, including our obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the First Lien Notes and the Second Lien Notes, depends

 

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on our ability to generate positive cash flows from operations, which is subject to general economic conditions, competitive pressures and certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to make these payments, we may be required to seek additional financing sources, reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations or refinance our indebtedness. These actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to take any of these actions, and even if successful, these actions may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our ability to restructure or refinance our existing indebtedness will depend on, among other things, the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at the time. We may not be able to restructure or refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and the outstanding principal and interest on our debt could be declared to be due and payable, in which case we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation or required to substantially restructure or alter our business operations or debt obligations.

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to our debt by rating agencies may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital.

Any rating assigned to our debt by a rating agency could be lowered or withdrawn entirely if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes to our ability to service our debt obligations or our general financial condition, so warrant. Any future lowering of our ratings likely would make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing. Additionally, we enter into various forms of hedging arrangements against currency, interest rates or commodity price fluctuations. Financial strength and credit ratings are also important to the availability and pricing of any hedging activities we decide to undertake, and a downgrade of our credit ratings may make it more costly for us to engage in these activities.

LIBOR and certain other interest “benchmarks” may be subject to regulatory guidance and/or reform that could cause interest rates under our current or future debt agreements to perform differently than in the past or cause other unanticipated consequences.

Because our Senior Secured Credit Facilities, First Lien Notes and Second Lien Notes bear interest at variable interest rates, based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and certain other benchmarks, fluctuations in interest rates could have a material effect on our business. We currently utilize, and may in the future utilize, derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps or interest rate caps to hedge some of our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, but such instruments may not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest fluctuations, and we may discontinue utilizing them at any time. As a result, we may incur higher interest costs if interest rates increase. These higher interest costs could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and the levels of cash we maintain for working capital.

In addition, LIBOR and certain other interest “benchmarks” may be subject to regulatory guidance and/or reform that could cause interest rates under our current or future debt agreements to perform differently than in the past or cause other unanticipated consequences. The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that it intends to stop encouraging or requiring banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021, and it is unclear if LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will evolve. If LIBOR ceases to exist or if the methods of calculating LIBOR change from their current form, interest rates on our current or future debt obligations may be adversely affected. If a published U.S. dollar LIBOR rate is unavailable, the interest rates on our first and second lien secured notes indexed to LIBOR will be determined in a manner that gives due consideration to the then prevailing market convention for determining a rate of interest for high yield notes in the United States at such time, and the interest rates on our Senior Secured Credit Facilities debt indexed to LIBOR will be determined in a manner that gives due consideration to the then prevailing market convention for determining a rate of interest for syndicated loans in the United States at such time; any of which could result in interest obligations that are more than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the payments that would have been made on this debt if U.S. dollar LIBOR were available in its

 

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current form. Any of these proposals or consequences could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs. Moreover, the phaseout of LIBOR may adversely affect our assessment of effectiveness or measurement of ineffectiveness for accounting purposes of any future interest rate hedging agreements indexed to LIBOR.

Sotera Health Holdings, LLC is a holding company, and therefore its ability to make any required payment on our credit agreements depends upon the ability of its subsidiaries to pay it dividends or to advance it funds.

Sotera Health Holdings, LLC, the borrower under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the issuer of our First Lien Notes and Second Lien Notes, has no direct operations and no significant assets other than the equity interests of its subsidiaries. Because it conducts its operations through its operating subsidiaries, Sotera Health Holdings, LLC depends on those entities to generate the funds necessary to meet its financial obligations, including its required obligations under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities. The ability of our subsidiaries to make transfers and other distributions to Sotera Health Holdings, LLC will be subject to, among other things, the terms of any debt instruments of such subsidiaries then in effect and applicable law. If transfers or other distributions from our subsidiaries to Sotera Health Holdings, LLC were eliminated, delayed, reduced or otherwise impaired, our ability to make payments on the obligations under our credit agreements would be substantially impaired.

Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock

There is no current trading market for our common stock and an active market may never develop or be sustained.

Before this initial public offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. An active public trading market may not develop after completion of this offering or, if developed, may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other businesses or assets using our shares as consideration. Furthermore, although our common stock has been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, there can be no guarantee that we will continue to satisfy the continued listing standards of the Nasdaq. If we fail to satisfy the continued listing standards, we could be de-listed, which would have a negative effect on the price of our common stock.

The market and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The initial public offering price for our common stock was determined through negotiations between the underwriters and us and may vary substantially from the market price of our common stock following this offering. This price may not reflect the public trading price of our common stock following this offering. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at or above your purchase price, if at all. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect our share price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common stock include those listed in “—Risks Related to the Company,” “—Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Liquidity” and the following, some of which are beyond our control:

 

   

volatility or economic downturns in the markets in which we, our suppliers or our customers are located caused by pandemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and related policies and restrictions undertaken to contain the spread of such pandemics or potential pandemics;

 

   

developments in our litigation matters and governmental investigations or additional significant lawsuits or governmental investigations relating to our services or facilities;

 

   

regulatory or legal developments in the jurisdictions in which we operate;

 

   

adverse publicity about us or the industries in which we participate;

 

   

variations in our quarterly or annual results of operations, or in those of our competitors or of companies in the medical device and pharmaceutical industries;

 

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the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;

 

   

sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders in the future or the perception that such sales may occur;

 

   

publication of research reports about the industries in which we participate;

 

   

changes in analysts’ estimates, investors’ perceptions, recommendations by securities analysts, our failure to achieve analysts’ estimates or failure of analysts to maintain coverage of us;

 

   

volatility in the trading prices and trading volumes of companies similar to us;

 

   

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of companies in our industry;

 

   

changes in accounting principles, policies, guidance, interpretations or standards; and

 

   

general market conditions and other factors unrelated to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors.

Certain broad market and industry factors may decrease the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. The stock market in general has from time to time experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations, including in recent months. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business, our market and our competitors. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or change their opinion of our business, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution.

The initial public offering price of $23.00 per share is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book deficit per share of our outstanding common stock of $(5.29) per share as of September 30, 2020 after this offering. Investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds the book deficit of our tangible assets after subtracting our liabilities. As a result, investors purchasing common stock in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $28.29 per share, based on the initial public offering price of $23.00 per share.

This dilution is due to the substantially lower price paid by our stockholders who purchased shares prior to this offering as compared to the price offered to the public in this offering. As a result of the dilution to investors purchasing shares in this offering, investors may receive less than the purchase price paid in this offering, if anything, in the event of our liquidation. See “Dilution.”

The future issuance of additional common stock in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise will dilute all other stockholdings.

After this offering, we will have an aggregate of 893,099,800 shares of common stock authorized but unissued (excluding shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our incentive plans), as well as

 

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1,568,445 treasury shares. We may issue all of these shares of common stock without any action or approval by our stockholders, subject to certain exceptions. We also intend to continue to evaluate acquisition opportunities and may issue common stock in connection with these acquisitions. Any common stock issued in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase common stock in this offering.

Future offerings of debt or equity securities by us may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

In the future, we may attempt to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional shares of our common stock or offering debt or other equity securities. Future acquisitions could require substantial additional capital in excess of cash from operations. We would expect to finance any future acquisitions through a combination of additional issuances of equity, corporate indebtedness, asset-backed acquisition financing and/or cash from operations.

Issuing additional shares of our common stock or other equity securities or securities convertible into equity may dilute the economic and voting rights of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock or both. Upon liquidation, holders of such debt securities and preferred shares, if issued, and lenders with respect to other borrowings would receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred shares, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our common stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our common stock bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of our common stock and dilute their stockholdings in us. See “Description of Capital Stock.”

A sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or the perception that such sales might occur, may cause the price of our common stock to decline.

Future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market after the lapse of lock-up and other legal or contractual restrictions on resale discussed in this prospectus, or the perception that such sales might occur, could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.

Upon the completion of this offering, we will have a total of 277,431,755 shares of our common stock outstanding based on the number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2020. Of these shares, all of the shares of common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable, without restriction, in the public market immediately after the offering.

Holders of 224,503,362 shares of our common stock, including each of our directors and officers, have entered into lock-up agreements with the underwriters that restrict their ability to sell or transfer their shares. The lock-up agreements pertaining to this offering will expire 180 days from the date of this prospectus. J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, however, may, in its sole discretion, waive the contractual lock-up prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements. Therefore, after the lock-up agreements expire, an additional 224,503,362 shares of common stock will be eligible for sale in the public market, of which 26,286,868 shares will be subject to vesting requirements and the transfer restrictions contained in the Stockholders’ Agreement, unless such transfer restrictions are waived by a majority of the members of the compensation committee of the board of directors, as described below. In addition to the 26,286,868 shares, an additional 6,328,393 shares of our outstanding common stock as of September 30, 2020 are not subject to lock-up agreements but will be subject to vesting requirements and contractual restrictions on transfer under the terms of our Stockholders’ Agreement described below.

 

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Further, after this offering, 212,622,727 shares of our outstanding common stock as of September 30, 2020 will be held by directors, executive officers and other affiliates and will be subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. All of such holders will have rights to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders.

We intend to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register all of the shares of common stock issued or issuable under our 2020 Plan. This registration statement is expected to become effective upon filing, and shares covered by this registration statement will be eligible for sale in the public markets, subject to Rule 144 limitations applicable to affiliates and any applicable contractual restrictions described above. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Any sales of securities by any of our stockholders described above could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

In connection with this offering, we intend to enter into a stockholders’ agreement with certain holders of our common stock, including investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR and members of our management team, which we refer to as the Stockholders’ Agreement. Under the Stockholders’ Agreement, stockholders party to the agreement (other than the Sponsors and their affiliates) are subject to contractual restrictions on transfer of shares of our common stock. Those restrictions, however, may be waived at any time by a majority of the members of the compensation committee of the board of directors. See “Certain Relationship and Related Party Transactions—Stockholders’ Agreement.”

In the future, we may also issue securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. In particular, the number of shares of our common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of our common stock. Any such issuance of additional securities in the future may result in additional dilution to you or may adversely impact the price of our common stock.

Although we do not expect to rely on the “controlled company” exemption, if we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards we would qualify for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

Because the Sponsors will own a majority of our outstanding common stock following the completion of this offering, we may be considered a “controlled company” as that term is set forth in the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by another person or group of persons acting together is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including:

 

   

the requirement that a majority of our board of directors consist of independent directors;

 

   

the requirement that our director nominations be made, or recommended to the full board of directors, by our independent directors or by a nominations committee that is comprised entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

 

   

the requirement that our compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

   

the requirement that we conduct an annual performance evaluation of the nominating and corporate governance and compensation committees.

These requirements would not apply to us as long as we remain a “controlled company.” Although we may qualify as a “controlled company” upon completion of this offering, we do not expect to rely on this exemption and intend to fully comply with all corporate governance requirements under the Nasdaq corporate governance

 

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standards. However, if we were to utilize some or all of these exemptions, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq corporate governance requirements. The Sponsors’ significant ownership interest could adversely affect investors’ perceptions of our corporate governance.

If the ownership of our common stock continues to be highly concentrated, it may prevent minority stockholders from influencing significant corporate decisions and may result in conflicts of interest.

Following the completion of this offering, the Sponsors will own approximately 71.4% of our outstanding common stock, or 69.7% if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is fully exercised. As a result, the Sponsors will own shares sufficient for the majority vote over all matters requiring a stockholder vote. Our Stockholders’ Agreement will contain agreements among the parties with respect to certain matters, including the election of directors; mergers, consolidations and acquisitions; the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and other decisions affecting our capital structure; the amendment of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws; the termination of our chief executive officer or designation of a new chief executive officer; changes in the composition of committees of our board of directors; entry into or changes to certain compensation agreements; and the issuance of additional shares of our common stock. This concentration of ownership, together with the Sponsors’ rights under our Stockholders’ Agreement, may delay, deter or prevent acts that would be favored by our other stockholders. The interests of the Sponsors may not always coincide with our interests or the interests of our other stockholders. For example, because the Sponsors purchased their shares at prices substantially below the price at which shares are being sold in this offering and have held their shares for a longer period, they may be more interested in selling our Company to an acquirer than other investors or may want us to pursue strategies that deviate from the interests of other stockholders. In addition, under the Stockholders’ Agreement we have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, to indemnify the Sponsors, and various affiliated persons and indirect equityholders of the Sponsors from certain losses arising out of any threatened or actual litigation by reason of the fact that the indemnified persons is or was a holder of our common stock or of equity interests in Sotera Health Company. Public stockholders will not benefit from this indemnification provision.

This concentration of ownership, together with the Sponsors’ rights under our Stockholders’ Agreement, may also have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control. As a result, the market price of our common stock could decline or stockholders might not receive a premium over the then-current market price of our common stock upon a change in control. In addition, this concentration of ownership, together with the Sponsors’ rights under our Stockholders’ Agreement, may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock because investors may perceive disadvantages in owning shares in a company with significant stockholders.

Certain of our stockholders have the right to engage or invest in the same or similar businesses as us.

The Sponsors have other investments and business activities in addition to their ownership of us. The Sponsors have the right, and have no duty to abstain from exercising such right, to engage or invest in the same or similar businesses as us, do business with any of our customers or suppliers or employ or otherwise engage any of our officers, directors or employees. If the Sponsors or any of their officers, directors or employees acquire knowledge of a potential transaction that could be a corporate opportunity, they have no duty, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to offer such corporate opportunity to us, our stockholders or our affiliates. This right could adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations if attractive business opportunities are procured by the Sponsors or another party for their own benefit rather than for ours.

In the event that any of our directors and officers who is also a director, officer or employee of any Sponsor acquires knowledge of a corporate opportunity or is offered a corporate opportunity, such person is deemed to have fully satisfied such person’s fiduciary duties owed to us and is not liable to us, to the fullest extent permitted by law, if such Sponsor pursues or acquires the corporate opportunity or does not present the corporate

 

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opportunity to us, provided that this knowledge was not acquired solely in such person’s capacity as our director or officer and such person acts in good faith.

The requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.

As a public company with shares listed on a U.S. exchange, we will need to comply with new laws, regulations and requirements, certain corporate governance provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, related regulations of the SEC, the requirements of the Nasdaq and other applicable rules and regulations, with which we are not required to comply as a private company. Complying with these statutes, regulations and requirements will occupy a significant amount of time of our board of directors and management and will significantly increase our legal and financial compliance costs and expenses. We will need to:

 

   

institute a more comprehensive compliance function;

 

   

comply with rules promulgated by the Nasdaq;

 

   

prepare and distribute periodic public reports in compliance with our obligations under the federal securities laws;

 

   

establish new internal policies, such as those relating to insider trading; and

 

   

involve and retain, to a greater degree, outside counsel and accountants in the above activities.

In addition, as a result of becoming a public company, we intend to add independent directors and create additional board committees. We also expect that being a public company subject to these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs and the material effect they could have on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Because a substantial portion of our proceeds from this offering will be used to repay outstanding indebtedness, only a portion of our proceeds from this offering may be used to further invest in our business. We will have broad discretion in the use of net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion to use our net proceeds from this offering, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. We intend to use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to redeem all of the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Second Lien Notes and repurchase certain shares of our common stock. We plan to use the balance of the net proceeds of this offering to repay a portion of the outstanding indebtedness under our Term Loan. As a result, a significant portion of our net proceeds of this offering will not be invested in our business, and therefore the value of your investment may not be increased. Because we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, our management may fail to apply these funds effectively, which could adversely affect our ability to operate and grow our business. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use our net proceeds from this offering.

The reduced disclosure requirements applicable to us as an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and may remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year during which we had total annual gross revenues of

 

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$1.07 billion or more, (b) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of this offering, (c) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the previous three-year period or (d) the date on which we are deemed a “large accelerated filer” as defined under the federal securities laws. For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including, but not limited to, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on certain executive compensation matters, such as “say on pay” and “say on frequency” and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information that they may deem important.

We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result of our taking advantage of these exemptions. If they do, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We are choosing to take advantage of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for private companies or at which time we conclude it is appropriate to avail ourselves of early adoption provisions of applicable standards. Accordingly, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates, and our stockholders and potential investors may have difficulty in analyzing our operating results by comparing us to such companies.

Anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and our Stockholders’ Agreement, as well as Delaware law, could discourage a change in control of our company or a change in our management.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, our Stockholders’ Agreement and Delaware law will contain provisions that might discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares of our common stock. These provisions may also prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our management. These provisions include:

 

   

limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;

 

   

establishing a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;

 

   

providing that directors may be removed only for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock; provided that so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR, collectively, hold at least 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, a director designated by investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR, respectively, may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the votes that all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors or class of directors and with the consent of Warburg Pincus or GTCR, respectively;

 

   

limiting the determination of the number of directors on our board of directors and the filling of vacancies or newly created seats on the board to our board of directors then in office; provided that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR have the right to designate at least one director for election to our board of directors, (i) any vacancies will be filled in accordance with the designation provisions set forth in the Stockholders’ Agreement and (ii) the number of directors shall not exceed eleven without the consent of Warburg Pincus or GTCR;

 

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advance notice requirements applicable to stockholders for matters to be brought before a meeting of stockholders and requirements as to the form and content of a stockholders’ notice; provided that no advance notice shall be required for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors pursuant to the Stockholders’ Agreement;

 

   

requiring the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock to amend certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws; provided that so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR, collectively, hold at least a majority of our outstanding capital stock, only a majority stockholder vote requirement would apply to such matters;

 

   

providing that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR have the right (individually) to designate at least three directors for election to our board of directors, certain board approvals, including amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws and certain specified corporate transactions, including certain acquisitions, mergers, other business combination transactions and dispositions, may be effected only with the affirmative vote of 75% of our board of directors, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law;

 

   

providing that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with Warburg Pincus have the right to designate at least one director for election to our board of directors and for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with GTCR have the right to designate one director for election to our board of directors, in each case, a quorum of our board of directors (and committees of the board of directors on which a director designated by Warburg Pincus or GTCR will serve) will not exist without at least one director designee of each of Warburg Pincus and GTCR present at such meeting; provided that if a meeting of our board of directors (or a committee of the board of directors) fails to achieve a quorum due to the absence of a director designee of Warburg Pincus or GTCR, as applicable, the presence of a director designee of Warburg Pincus or GTCR, as applicable, will not be required in order for a quorum to exist at the next duly noticed meeting of our board of directors (or a committee thereof);

 

   

the right to issue blank check preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer or adopt a stockholder rights plan;

 

   

a requirement that our stockholders may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders and may not act by written consent; provided that, for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR, collectively, beneficially own a majority of our outstanding capital stock, a meeting and vote of stockholders may be dispensed with, and the action may be taken without prior notice and without such meeting and vote if a written consent is signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at the meeting of stockholders;

 

   

limiting the ability of stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings; provided that for so long as investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR, collectively, beneficially own a majority of our outstanding capital stock, special meetings of our stockholders may be called by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting stock; and

 

   

limiting the forum to Delaware or Federal Court for certain litigation against us.

In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will contain a provision that provides us with protections similar to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”), and will prevent us from engaging in a business combination with a person (excluding the Sponsors and any of their respective direct or indirect transferees and any group as to which such persons are a party) who acquires at least 15% of our common stock for a period of three years from the date such person acquired such common stock, unless board or shareholder approval is obtained prior to the acquisition. See “Description of Capital Stock—Anti-Takeover

 

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Effects of Provisions of Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Our Amended and Restated Bylaws and Delaware Law.”

These provisions might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or a change in our management. For example, because investment funds and entities affiliated with either Warburg Pincus or GTCR together will own a majority of the voting power of our common stock upon the completion of this offering, they could prevent a third party from acquiring us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. The existence of these provisions could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will designate specific courts as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ abilities to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees or stockholders to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers or other employees or stockholders arising pursuant to, any action to interpret, apply, enforce any right, obligation or remedy under, any provision of the DGCL our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, (4) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or (5) any other action asserting an “internal corporate claim” under the DGCL shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or any state or federal court located within the State of Delaware if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction) (the “Delaware Forum Provision”). Notwithstanding the foregoing, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that the Delaware Forum Provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will further provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act (the “Federal Forum Provision”).

The Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the Delaware Forum Provision or the Federal Forum Provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in our shares of capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and consented the Delaware Forum Provision and the Federal Forum Provision, but will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

We do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We do not expect to declare or pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently expect to use any cash flow generated by operations to pay for our operations, repay existing indebtedness and grow our business. Any decisions to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash

 

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requirements, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock is limited by the terms of the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the First Lien Notes and Second Lien Notes. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of potential gain for the foreseeable future, and you will have to sell some or all of your common stock to generate cash flow from your investment. See “Dividend Policy.”

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Some of the statements made under the headings “Summary,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in the financial statements and elsewhere in this prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, beliefs, expectations and current views with respect to, among other things, future events and financial performance. Forward-looking statements are often characterized by the use of words such as “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” “may,” “intends,” “plans” or “anticipates,” or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to differ materially from historical results or any future results, performance or achievements expressed, suggested or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:

 

   

any disruption in the availability of, or increases in the price of, EO, Co-60 or our other direct materials, services and supplies, including as a result of current geopolitical instability arising from U.S. relations with Russia and related sanctions;

 

   

adverse changes in industry trends;

 

   

adverse changes in environmental, health and safety regulations;

 

   

accidents resulting from the safety risks associated with the use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials such as EO and Co-60;

 

   

accidents resulting from the safety risks associated with the transportation of potentially hazardous materials such as EO and Co-60;

 

   

liability claims relating to health risks associated with the use of EO and Co-60;

 

   

current and future legal proceedings;

 

   

the intensity of competition we face;

 

   

any market changes that impact our long-term supply contracts with variable price clauses;

 

   

allegations of our failure to properly perform our services and any potential product liability claims, recalls, penalties and reputational harm;

 

   

the regulatory requirements to which we are subject, and any failures to receive or maintain, or delays in receiving, required clearance or approvals;

 

   

business continuity hazards and other risks associated with our operations, including our reliance on the use and sale of products and services from a single location;

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

   

our ability to increase capacity at existing facilities and build new facilities in a timely and cost-effective manner;

 

   

our ability to renew the long-term leases for our facilities at the end of their terms;

 

   

the risks of doing business internationally;

 

   

instability in global and regional economic and political conditions;

 

   

our failure to retain key personnel and attract talent;

 

   

the significant regulatory oversight to which our import and export operations are subject, and any failure to comply with applicable regulations;

 

   

any cyber security breaches and data leaks as a result of our dependence on information technology systems;

 

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the risks of pursuing strategic transactions, including acquisitions, and our ability to find suitable acquisition targets or integrate strategic acquisitions successfully into our business;

 

   

our ability to implement effective internal controls over financial reporting;

 

   

our reliance on intellectual property to maintain our competitive position and the risk of claims from third parties that we infringe or misappropriate their intellectual property rights;

 

   

the data privacy and security laws and regulations to which we are subject, and any ineffective compliance efforts with such laws and regulations;

 

   

our ability to maintain profitability in the future;

 

   

impairment charges on our goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives;

 

   

unionization efforts and labor regulations in certain countries in which we operate;

 

   

the variety of laws involving the cannabis industry to which we are subject, and any failure to comply with those laws;

 

   

the risk of government or private civil antitrust actions;

 

   

adverse changes to our tax positions in U.S. or non-U.S. jurisdictions, the interpretation and application of recent U.S. tax legislation or other changes in U.S. or non-U.S. taxation of our operations;

 

   

our substantial leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and prevent us from meeting our obligations under our existing and future indebtedness;

 

   

our ability to generate sufficient cash flows or access sufficient additional capital to meet our debt obligations or to fund our other liquidity needs; and

 

   

the other risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus.

These statements are based on current plans, estimates and projections, and therefore you should not place undue reliance on them. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update them publicly in light of new information or future events, except as required by law. The inclusion of this forward-looking information should not be regarded as a representation by us, the Sponsors, the underwriters or any other person that the future plans, estimates or expectations contemplated by us will be achieved.

You should carefully consider the “Risk Factors” and subsequent public statements, or reports filed with or furnished to the SEC, before making any investment decision with respect to our securities. If any of these trends, risks or uncertainties actually occurs or continues, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially adversely affected, the trading prices of our securities could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Our net proceeds from the sale of 46,600,000 shares of common stock offered by us will be approximately $1,010.2 million or approximately $1,161.7 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

We intend to use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to (i) redeem all of the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Second Lien Notes at the applicable redemption premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of redemption and (ii) repurchase 1,568,445 shares of our common stock from certain of our executive officers at a purchase price per share equal to the initial public offering price per share of our common stock less the underwriting discounts and commissions payable thereon (the “repurchase”). See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Transactions With Certain of Our Executive Officers.” We plan to use the balance of the net proceeds of this offering to repay a portion of the outstanding indebtedness under our Term Loan. Pending use of the proceeds as described above, we may invest the proceeds in short-term, interest bearing, investment-grade securities.

As of September 30, 2020, $770.0 million of the Second Lien Notes was outstanding and borrowings under the Term Loan were $2,109.4 million. The Second Lien Notes mature on December 13, 2027 and bear interest at a rate equal to LIBOR subject to a 1.00% floor plus 8.00% per annum. The Term Loan matures on December 13, 2026, and as of September 30, 2020, the weighted average interest rate on borrowings under the Term Loan was 5.50%. The Second Lien Notes were issued and the Term Loan was originally entered into by SHH on December 13, 2019. The proceeds from the Second Lien Notes and the Term Loan were used to refinance $2,565.6 million of existing debt and to fund the payment of a $295.6 million distribution to Topco Parent. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”

Affiliates of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, an underwriter in this offering, hold approximately $420 million aggregate principal amount of the Second Lien Notes, all of which will be redeemed at the applicable redemption premium, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding the date of redemption, as described above. In addition, affiliates of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and certain of the other underwriters and/or certain of their affiliates are lenders, and/or act as agents or arrangers, under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities, and as a result, will receive a portion of the net proceeds from this offering. For more information, see “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

To the extent we raise more proceeds in this offering than currently estimated, we intend to repay additional indebtedness under our Term Loan or use the balance for working capital or other general corporate purposes. To the extent we raise less proceeds in this offering than currently estimated, we will reduce the amount of indebtedness we repay.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We do not currently expect to pay any dividends on our common stock. Instead, we intend to use any future earnings for the operation and growth of our business and the repayment of indebtedness.

Future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon, among other things, our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, statutory and contractual restrictions applicable to the payment of dividends and other considerations that our board of directors deems relevant. The timing and amount of future dividend payments will be at the discretion of our board of directors.

Because we are a holding company and have no direct operations, we will only be able to pay dividends from our available cash on hand and any funds we receive from our subsidiaries. The agreements governing our existing indebtedness contain negative covenants that limit, among other things, our ability to pay cash dividends on our common stock, and the terms of any future loan agreement into which we may enter or any additional debt securities we may issue are likely to contain similar restrictions on the payment of dividends. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock—We do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.”

In 2019, we paid dividends to Topco Parent in the aggregate amount of $691.2 million. We do not currently intend to declare or pay any similar special dividends in the foreseeable future.

For a discussion of the application of withholding taxes on dividends, see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders.”

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of September 30, 2020:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to reflect:

 

   

share-based compensation expense of $4.0 million, net of tax, associated with Class B-2 Units that we will recognize upon the listing and public trading of our common stock, reflected as a $4.9 million increase to additional paid-in capital with an offsetting $4.0 million (net of tax) increase to retained deficit;

 

   

the sale of 46,600,000 shares of our common stock in this offering and the payment of approximately $4.1 million of incremental offering expenses; and

 

   

the application of the net proceeds from this offering to (i) repay $960.8 million of our outstanding indebtedness under our Second Lien Notes and our Term Loan, and reflect a write-off of associated unamortized debt issuance costs and debt discounts, (ii) pay the estimated redemption premium of $15.4 million on our Second Lien Notes, which is reflected as a net of tax adjustment of $11.7 million to retained earnings, and (iii) to repurchase 1,568,445 shares of common stock (and as otherwise described under the heading “Use of Proceeds”).

You should read the following table in conjunction with the sections titled “Use of Proceeds,” “Selected Consolidated Financial Information,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of September 30, 2020  
     Actual      Pro Forma
As Adjusted
 
     (In thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 108,276      $ 104,122  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Long-term debt, including current portion:

     

Revolving credit facility(a)

     —          —    

Term Loan, due 2026

     2,109,400        1,918,629  

Second Lien Notes, due 2027

     770,000        —    

First Lien Notes, due 2026

     100,000        100,000  

Other long-term debt

     450        450  

Unamortized debt issuance costs and debt discounts

     (69,870      (43,333
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total debt

   $ 2,909,980      $ 1,975,746  

Stockholders’ equity:

     

Common stock, with $0.01 par value per share, 232,400 shares authorized, 232,400 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 1,200,000 shares authorized, 279,000 shares issued and 277,432 shares outstanding, pro forma as adjusted;

     2,324        2,790  

Treasury shares - at cost (0 actual; 1,568 shares, pro forma as adjusted)

     —          (34,000

Additional paid-in capital

     4,019        1,018,670  

Retained earnings (deficit)

     (545,448      (564,265

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (124,753      (124,753
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity (deficit) attributable to the company

     (663,858      298,442  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Noncontrolling interests

     1,857        1,857  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity (deficit)

     (662,001      300,299  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 2,247,979      $ 2,276,045  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

Numbers in table may not foot, due to rounding.

(a)

See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per share offering price of the common stock is substantially in excess of the net tangible book value per share attributable to the existing equity holders. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of stockholders’ equity excluding intangible assets, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at that date.

Our historical net tangible book deficit as of September 30, 2020 was $(2,400.7) million, or approximately $(10.33) per share of common stock (assuming 232,400,200 shares of common stock outstanding).

The dilution per share to new investors represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book deficit per share of common stock immediately after completion of this offering. Investors participating in this offering will incur immediate, substantial dilution. After giving effect to our sale of 46,600,000 shares of common stock in this offering at an initial public offering price of $23.00 per share, and the repurchase, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions, our net tangible book deficit as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $(1,466.5) million or approximately $(5.29) per share. This amount represents an immediate decrease in net tangible book deficit of $5.04 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book deficit of $28.29 per share to purchasers of common stock in this offering, as illustrated in the following table.

 

Initial public offering price per share

      $ 23.00  

Net tangible book deficit per share as of September 30, 2020

   $ (10.33   

Increase in net tangible book deficit per share attributable to this offering

   $ 5.04     
  

 

 

    

Net tangible book deficit per share after this offering

      $ (5.29
     

 

 

 

Dilution in net tangible book deficit per share to investors in this offering

      $ 28.29  
     

 

 

 

To the extent the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors.

The following table summarizes, as of September 30, 2020, the differences between existing stockholders and new investors with respect to the number of shares of common stock purchased from us (without reflecting the repurchase), the total consideration paid and the average price per share of our common stock paid by existing stockholders. The calculation reflects the issuance of shares of our common stock in this offering at an initial public offering price of $23.00 per share, before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

     Shares Purchased     Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Share
 
     Number      Percent     Amount      Percent        

Existing stockholders

     232,400,200        83   $ 833.0        44   $ 3.58  

New investors

     46,600,000        17   $ 1,071.8        56   $ 23.00  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

     279,000,200        100   $ 1,904.8        100   $ 6.83  

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the number of shares of common stock held by new investors will increase to 53,590,000, or 19 percent, of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.

The discussion and table above exclude the repurchase and assume no issuance of shares reserved for issuance under our equity incentive plans. Following the closing of this offering, there will be 27,900,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Plan.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The following tables present our selected historical consolidated financial and other data. The selected historical consolidated statements of operations data and statements of cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the selected historical balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical consolidated statements of operations data and statements of cash flows data for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 and the selected historical consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2020 have been derived from our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of our management, reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring items, considered necessary for a fair presentation of this data.

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the information contained in “Use of Proceeds,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period and our results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any full fiscal year.

 

Statement of Operations Data:   Year Ended December 31,     Nine Months Ended September 30,  
(in thousands, except per share amounts)           2019                     2018                     2020                     2019          

Revenues:

       

Service

  $ 673,037     $ 615,510     $ 524,025     $ 501,875  

Product

    105,290       130,639       77,288       82,967  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net revenues

    778,327       746,149       601,313       584,842  

Cost of revenues:

       

Service

    333,290       326,559       247,386       248,406  

Product

    49,606       62,338       30,932       38,226  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

    382,896       388,897       278,318       286,632  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

    395,431       357,252       322,995       298,210  

Operating expenses:

       

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    147,480       133,363       125,369       110,360  

Amortization of intangible assets

    58,562       57,975       43,989       43,942  

Impairment of long-lived assets

    5,792       34,981       —         5,781  

Impairment of GA-MURR intangible assets

    —         50,086       —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

    211,834       276,405       169,358       160,083  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income

    183,597       80,847       153,637       138,127  

Interest expense, net

    157,729       143,326       167,142       114,478  

Loss on extinguishment of debt

    30,168       —         —         —    

Foreign exchange (gain) loss

    3,862       13,075       (5,370     8,444  

Gain on sale of Medical Isotopes business

    —         (95,910     —         —    

Other income, net

    (7,246     (3,866     (4,353     (4,746
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) before income taxes

    (916     24,222       (3,782     19,951  

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

    19,509       30,098       (9,677     12,630  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss)

    (20,425     (5,876     5,895       7,321  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests

    425       (6     832       271  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to the company

  $ (20,850   $ (5,870   $ 5,063     $ 7,050  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Statement of Operations Data (continued):   Year Ended December 31,     Nine Months Ended September 30,  
(in thousands, except per share amounts)           2019                     2018                     2020                     2019          

Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:

       

Pension and post-retirement benefits

  $ (12,126   $ 873     $ 700     $ (409

Interest rate swaps

    179       —         (179     509  

Foreign currency translation

    27,402       (67,917     (31,304     10,968  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income (loss)

    (4,970     (72,920     (24,888     18,389  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Less: comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    310       (186     832       156  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to the company

  $ (5,280   $ (72,734   $ (25,720   $ 18,233  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Earnings (loss) per share:

       

Basic and Diluted

  $ (0.09   $ (0.03   $ 0.02     $ 0.03  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute earnings (loss) per share:

       

Basic and Diluted

    232,400       232,400       232,400       232,400  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share (unaudited)(a)

       

Basic and Diluted

  $ 0.14       $ 0.21    
 

 

 

     

 

 

   

Pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares used to compute earnings (loss) per share (unaudited)(b)

       

Basic and Diluted

    277,432         277,432    
 

 

 

     

 

 

   

Selected cash flow data:

       

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 149,041     $ 119,563     $ 98,740     $ 138,974  

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(c)

    (57,257     96,638       (139,920     (36,636

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    (126,030     (191,857     83,961       (108,811

Other data:

       

Adjusted Net Income(d)

  $ 100,386     $ 75,315     $ 77,144     $ 87,897  

Adjusted EBITDA(d)

    379,932       340,637       306,797       285,457  

 

(a)

Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share for the year ended December 31, 2019 has been adjusted to reflect $58.7 million of lower interest expense, net of taxes, assuming the repayment of previously outstanding $425.0 million Senior PIK Toggle Notes, due 2021, $450.0 million Senior Notes, due 2023 and $75.0 million of principal amount outstanding of the Term Loan, due 2022, using a portion of the proceeds of this offering as if such indebtedness had been repaid as of the beginning of the period. Pro forma as adjusted earnings (loss) per share for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 has been adjusted to reflect $53.6 million of lower interest expense, net of taxes, assuming the repayment of the $770.0 million of principal amount outstanding of the Second Lien Notes, due 2027 and $190.8 million of principal amount outstanding of our Term Loan, due 2026, using a portion of the proceeds of this offering as if such indebtedness had been repaid as of the beginning of the period.

(b)

Pro forma as adjusted weighted-average shares has been adjusted to (i) include those shares of common stock to be issued in this offering necessary to pay down the debt referenced in footnote (a) above, and (ii) reflect the number of shares of common stock that will be repurchased in the repurchase. Such shares are assumed to have been issued or repurchased, as applicable as of the beginning of the year ended December 31, 2019 and as of the beginning of the nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively.

(c)

Includes purchases of property, plant and equipment of $57,257, $72,613, $33,640 and $36,636, respectively (which includes Co-60 held at gamma irradiation sites).

 

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(d)

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. For a definition of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to net income (loss), see “Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

     As of
December 31,
     As of
September 30,
 
     2019      2018      2020  

Balance Sheet Data (as of period end):

        

(in thousands)

        

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 62,863      $ 96,272      $ 108,276  

Working capital(a)

     128,364        169,488        163,810  

Total assets

     2,580,674        2,708,584        2,700,004  

Total long-term debt (including current portion, less unamortized debt issuance costs and debt discounts)

     2,817,204        2,204,906        2,909,980  

Total liabilities

     3,221,806        2,663,093        3,362,005  

Total equity (deficit) attributable to the company

     (642,574      44,359        (663,858

Noncontrolling interests

     1,442        1,132        1,857  

Total equity (deficit)

     (641,132      45,491        (662,001

 

(a)

Working capital represents current assets less current liabilities.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis in conjunction with our selected consolidated financial information and consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s current expectations, estimates and projections about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including the factors we describe in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

OVERVIEW

We are a leading global provider of mission-critical sterilization and lab testing and advisory services to the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We are driven by our mission: Safeguarding Global Health®. We provide end-to-end sterilization as well as microbiological and analytical lab testing and advisory services to help ensure that medical, pharmaceutical and food products are safe for healthcare practitioners, patients and consumers in the United States and around the world. Our customers include more than 40 of the top 50 medical device companies and eight of the top ten global pharmaceutical companies (based on revenue). Our services are an essential aspect of our customers’ manufacturing process and supply chains, helping to ensure sterilized medical products reach healthcare practitioners and patients. Most of these services are necessary for our customers to satisfy applicable government requirements. We give our customers confidence that their products meet regulatory, safety and effectiveness requirements. With a combined tenure across our businesses of nearly 200 years and our industry-recognized scientific and technological expertise, we help to ensure the safety of millions of patients and healthcare practitioners around the world every year. Across our 63 facilities worldwide, we have nearly 2,900 employees who are dedicated to safety and quality. We are a trusted partner to more than 5,800 customers in over 50 countries.

We serve our customers throughout their product lifecycles, from product design to manufacturing and delivery, helping to ensure the sterility, effectiveness and safety of their products for the end user. We operate across two core businesses: sterilization services and lab services. Each of our businesses has a longstanding record and is a leader in its respective market, supported and connected by our core capabilities including deep end market, regulatory, technical and logistics expertise. The combination of Sterigenics, our terminal sterilization business, and Nordion, our Co-60 supply business, makes us the only vertically integrated global gamma sterilization provider in the sterilization industry. This provides us with additional insights and allows us to better serve our customers. For financial reporting purposes, our sterilization services business consists of two reportable segments, Sterigenics and Nordion, and our lab services business consists of one reportable segment, Nelson Labs.

 

   

Sterilization Services (Sterigenics and Nordion):

 

   

Under our Sterigenics brand, we provide outsourced terminal sterilization and irradiation services for the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and advanced applications markets. Terminal sterilization is the process of sterilizing a product in its final packaging. It is an essential, and often government-mandated, step in the manufacturing process of healthcare products before they are shipped to end-users. These products include medical protective barriers, including PPE, procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters, wound care products, laboratory products and pharmaceuticals. Our sterilization facilities are often strategically located near our healthcare customers’ manufacturing sites or distribution hubs, which is intended to decrease our customers’ transportation costs and help them optimize their supply chain and logistics. We offer our customers a complete range of outsourced terminal sterilization services, primarily using the three major sterilization technologies: gamma irradiation, EO processing and E-beam irradiation.

 

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Under our Nordion brand, we are the leading global provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are key components to the gamma sterilization process. Co-60 is a radioactive isotope that is needed by medical device manufacturers and sterilizers including Sterigenics. Co-60 decays and must be replaced over time to produce the desired level of irradiation. We have the most comprehensive access to nuclear power reactor operators around the world, which are able to produce Co-60. The capabilities that we provide to Nordion’s customers include handling and processing of Co-60, recycling of depleted sources and global logistics enabled by our licensed container fleet. We are integral to our customers’ operations due to highly coordinated and complex installation processes. In addition, under our Nordion brand, we are a leading supplier of Co-60 sources for stereotactic radiosurgery devices (such as the Gamma Knife®), which are used for certain oncology applications.

 

   

Lab Services (Nelson Labs):

 

   

Under our Nelson Labs brand, we are a global leader in outsourced microbiological and analytical chemistry testing and advisory services for the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We provide our customers mission-critical lab testing services, which assess the product quality, effectiveness, patient safety and end-to-end sterility of products. These services are necessary for our customers’ regulatory approvals, product releases and ongoing product performance evaluations.

Microbiology testing services help to identify and measure the potential risks of microbes to a product and ensure that the quality of the products is maintained. Analytical chemistry lab testing is also a critical part of the pharmaceutical drug and medical device development and manufacturing process. This testing provides first-hand information as to the content, quality and safety of raw materials, intermediates and finished products. We also provide expert advisory services to aid customers in navigating the regulatory requirements applicable throughout the product lifecycle.

Nelson Labs serves over 3,800 customers across 13 facilities in the United States, Mexico, Asia and Europe. We have a comprehensive array of over 800 laboratory tests supporting our customers from initial product development and sterilization validation, through regulatory approval and ongoing product testing for sterility, safety and quality assurance. Our customers rely on our expertise in their industries to get their medical device and pharmaceutical products to market.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded net revenues of $778.3 million, net loss of $20.4 million, Adjusted Net Income of $100.4 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $379.9 million. In addition, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recorded net revenues of $601.3 million, net income of $5.9 million, Adjusted Net Income of $77.1 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $306.8 million. For the definition of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA and the reconciliation of these measures from net income (loss), please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.” More than 90% of our sterilization services revenues in each of the year ended December 31, 2019 and the nine months ended September 30, 2020 were from customers under multi-year contracts.

TRENDS AND KEY FACTORS AFFECTING OUR RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

We expect that our performance and financial condition will continue to be driven by the key trends impacting our industries, customers and their end markets, as outlined in “Business—Industry Overview.” In addition, we believe the following trends and key factors have underpinned our recent operating results and may continue to affect our performance and financial condition in future periods.

 

   

Continue to drive organic growth. We drive organic growth through increasing utilization of our existing capacity and expanding our capacity and service offerings. In our Sterigenics business, we are

 

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investing in additional capacity at existing facilities and building new facilities. In our Nordion business, we are developing further supply relationships and expanding our capabilities to source Co-60 from additional reactors. In our Nelson Labs business, we are investing to expand our geographic reach, technical expertise and regulatory knowhow to stay ahead of the dynamic and increasingly stringent regulatory landscape in the healthcare industry, and drive growth in our advisory services offering.

 

   

Disciplined and strategic M&A activity. We have completed several strategic transactions that have expanded our addressable market and enhanced our global capabilities and footprint. In 2017, we acquired Toxikon Europe NV (now known as Nelson Laboratories Europe), a lab services business with extractable and leachables testing services. In 2018, we acquired Gibraltar Laboratories, Inc. (now known as Nelson Laboratories Fairfield, Inc.) (“Nelson Fairfield”), a provider of microbiological and analytical chemistry testing. In July 2020, we acquired Iotron Industries Canada, Inc., an E-beam processing services and equipment provider. We also completed the sale of our former Medical Isotopes business to a subsidiary of BWX Technologies, Inc. in 2018 to monetize a noncore asset, the proceeds from which we reinvested in our core businesses. We are continuing to pursue strategic acquisitions to grow our footprint and expand our capabilities.

 

   

Business optimization and cost savings initiatives. We have conducted several business optimization and cost savings projects in connection with the integrations of Nordion and Nelson Labs, the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business and the creation of the Sotera Health “One Company” platform. These projects included consolidation of certain back office functions into a shared service model, optimization and harmonization of certain systems, insurance lines and benefits programs and rebranding the company under the name Sotera Health. Additionally, we have realigned our operating structure and made enhancements to certain processes. We also withdrew from the GA-MURR project in 2018. These projects have resulted in more efficient operations, working capital improvement and a more integrated and robust control and governance environment. In 2018, 2019 and through September 30, 2020, we incurred $8.8 million, $4.2 million and $2.5 million, respectively, in connection with implementing these projects. These measures have contributed in part to our 12.8% operating margin improvement and 3.2% of Adjusted EBITDA margin improvement in 2019, and our 1.9% operating margin improvement and 2.2% of Adjusted EBITDA margin improvement in the nine-month period ended September 30, 2020. For the definition of Adjusted EBITDA and the reconciliation of these measures from net income (loss), please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

 

   

Exit activities and litigation costs. We are currently the subject of a series of tort lawsuits alleging personal injury by purported exposure to EO emitted by our facility in Willowbrook, Illinois. We are also the subject of tort lawsuits alleging personal injury and property devaluation by purported exposure to EO emitted by our facility in Atlanta, Georgia. We deny these allegations and are vigorously defending against these claims. In addition, we have been involved in litigation with local officials related to claims of loss of neighboring property value and to resume operations at our Atlanta facility that had been temporarily suspended to facilitate enhancements to our EO emissions control equipment. We expect that our litigation costs will increase during the pendency of these cases, particularly as the per occurrence limit of our environmental liability insurance had been reached for the Willowbrook litigation in the second quarter of 2020 and as we prepare for the commencement of the first personal injury trials for the Willowbrook litigation currently scheduled to occur in 2021. See “Business—Legal Proceedings.” On September 30, 2019, we announced plans to exit our EO sterilization operations in Willowbrook and recorded a fixed asset impairment and have continued to incur certain transitional costs during the closure process including lease costs, payroll and utility expenses. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded costs of $3.0 million and $1.7 million, respectively, relating to the closure of our Willowbrook facility.

 

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Impacts of being a public company. Following this offering, as a public company we will incur significant expenses on an ongoing basis that we did not incur as a private company. Those costs include additional board fees and director and officer liability insurance expenses, as well as third-party and internal resources related to accounting, auditing, Sarbanes-Oxley Act compliance, legal, and investor and public relations expenses. These costs will generally be classified as Selling, General & Administrative (“SG&A”) expenses. Additionally, in connection with this offering, we expect to implement a long-term equity incentive plan to align our equity compensation program with public company plans and practices.

 

   

Borrowings, financing costs and financial leverage. In December 2019, Sotera Health Holdings, LLC (“SHH”) entered into new Senior Secured Credit Facilities (which consist of a senior secured first lien term loan and senior secured first lien revolving credit facility) and issued $770.0 million of senior secured second lien notes to refinance SHH’s previously outstanding term loan and the redemption of the senior notes issued by us and SHH. In July 2020, SHH also issued $100.0 million of senior secured first lien notes to finance, in part, the Iotron acquisition. In connection with the 2019 refinancing, we wrote-off $13.5 million of debt issuance and discount costs and recognized $14.6 million representing premiums paid in connection with the early extinguishment of the senior notes. We also recognized an additional $2.1 million of expense related to debt issuance and discount costs. As a result, the majority of our long-term debt, all of which is prepayable, is not due until 2026 or later. Going forward, absent any changes in interest rates, we expect a decrease in cash interest expense in future periods following this offering due to lower debt balances outstanding, as we intend to use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay a portion of our outstanding indebtedness.

 

   

Impact of U.S. tax reform. On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was signed into law. The legislation significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates to 21%, implementing an inclusion item for global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) and limiting interest expense deductions to 30% of U.S. adjusted taxable income. The CARES Act was signed into law on March 27, 2020 and temporarily increases the interest expense deduction limitation to 50% of U.S. adjusted taxable income for both 2019 and 2020. On July 23, 2020, 951A final regulations were published that exempt income subject to a high rate of foreign tax from inclusion under GILTI for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017.

We currently estimate a 2020 GILTI current tax expense of approximately $1.5 million, a reduction of $11.2 million from prior estimates as result of final 951A regulations. In 2019 and 2018, we recognized GILTI current tax expense of $10.3 million and $5.6 million (after giving effect to a $0.7 million increase as reported on the 2018 federal return), respectively. As a result of final 951A regulations, the 2019 and 2018 GILTI tax was reduced to $2.4 million and $0, respectively, and reflected as a discrete benefit in the third quarter of 2020.

Although the TCJA limits the deductibility of interest expense in any given year, any amounts not currently deductible may be carried forward indefinitely. At December 31, 2019 we had $41.5 million of deferred tax assets, of which $5.6 million had a valuation allowance, relating to interest expense from 2019 and prior years that was not deductible in the originating period. As a result of the increased limitation provided by the CARES Act, we reversed the $5.6 million valuation allowance for the period ended March 31, 2020 and recorded a reduction in our 2019 and 2020 current income tax liability of $9.1 million in each period. The reduction in Adjusted Taxable Income (“ATI”) realized as a result of the final 951A regulations resulted in a $36.2 million valuation allowance recorded in the quarter ended September 30, 2020. We do not expect to fully realize the benefit of interest expense incurred in future periods and therefore may recognize a valuation allowance on any related deferred tax assets generated in those future periods that will impact our annual effective income tax rate.

 

   

Foreign currency exchange rates. As a result of our global operations, we generate a significant portion of our revenue and incur a significant portion of our expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We translate the assets, liabilities, net revenues and expenses of all of our operations into U.S.

 

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dollars at applicable exchange rates, and therefore we experience gains and losses related to exchange rate fluctuations. See “—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk—Foreign Currency Risk.” From time to time, as and when we determine it is appropriate and advisable to do so, we may seek to mitigate the cash effect of exchange rate fluctuations through the use of derivative financial instruments.

 

   

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic. The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the governmental responses, has affected our operations beginning in the first quarter of 2020. There has been an increase in deferred elective procedures, which has negatively impacted demand for some of our products and services as a result of a decrease in the need for sterilized medical devices used in these procedures. Although our operations are considered “essential” in all locations where we operate, we have experienced, and may experience in the future, temporary facility closures while awaiting appropriate government approvals in certain jurisdictions or delays in delivering products or services to customers. We have experienced delayed deliveries, primarily in our Nordion business, at certain locations as a result of governmental travel restrictions enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent to which our operations will continue to be impacted by the pandemic will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.

COMPONENTS OF OUR RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Net Revenues

Service revenues consist of revenue generated from contract sterilization and lab testing and advisory services within our Sterigenics and Nelson Labs segments, respectively. Service revenues also consist of Co-60 installation and disposal revenues and production irradiator refurbishments and installation services within our Nordion segment. Product revenues consist of revenues generated from sales of Co-60 radiation sources and production irradiators. Provisions for discounts, rebates to customers, and other adjustments are provided for as reductions in net revenues. Refunds, returns, warranties and other related obligations are not material to any of our business units, nor do we incur material incremental costs to secure customer contracts.

Cost of Revenues

Our cost of revenues consists primarily of direct materials, utilities, labor and related benefit costs, and depreciation and amortization. Although the cost of utilities and direct materials can fluctuate, the remaining components of cost of revenues are generally more stable. Direct material costs relating to service revenues primarily includes EO gas, nitrogen gas and Co-60. The physical decay of Co-60 assets is included within depreciation expense as a cost of revenue. Direct material costs relating to product revenues also include the costs associated with acquiring Co-60 in finished or semi-finished form, acquiring Co-59 in a form ready for insertion into reactors for conversion into Co-60, the reactor time and associated services to convert Co-59 into Co-60, and parts and equipment associated with building and maintaining production irradiators.

Operating Expenses

SG&A Expenses

SG&A primarily consists of compensation and benefits costs and general operating and administrative expenses, including professional service fees (which include finance and legal costs), travel and entertainment expenses, and other general and administrative expenses. Share-based compensation expense is also included in SG&A. At September 30, 2020, unvested awards have remaining unrecognized share-based compensation expense of $15.1 million, which consists of $10.2 million related to time vesting awards (Class B-1 Units) to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.6 years and $4.9 million related to performance vesting awards (Class B-2 Units). We expect to recognize the expense associated with the performance vesting awards (Class B-2 Units) upon the listing and public trading of our common stock.

 

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Amortization of Intangible Assets

Amortization of intangible assets primarily consists of expense associated with customer relationship intangibles, the majority of which relate to the fair values attributed to these assets upon the recapitalization of the Company in connection with the acquisition by the Sponsors in 2015. These customer relationship intangibles were initially assigned a useful life of ten years and have a remaining useful life of approximately five years. These customer relationship intangible assets account for $49.1 million of our current annual amortization expense and are expected to be fully amortized in 2025. Amortization expense fluctuates when we have an acquisition, disposition, impairment charge, or as their useful lives expire. We expect intangible assets related to future acquisitions and the associated amortization expense will increase over time as we execute on our strategy to pursue acquisition targets that are complementary to our businesses.

Impairment

We review tangible and intangible assets for impairment on a regular basis. Impairment charges in 2018 represented charges associated with our withdrawal from the Nordion GA-MURR project (as described below) and the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business. Impairment charges in 2019 were incurred primarily in connection with the closure of the Willowbrook facility.

Operating Income

Operating income represents gross profit, less SG&A, amortization of intangible assets and impairment charges.

Interest Expense, Net

Interest expense, net, represents interest paid or accruing on our outstanding indebtedness and the amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs. Interest expense is affected by changes in average outstanding indebtedness (including capital lease obligations) and variable interest rates. We present interest expense net of interest income, which primarily consists of interest earned on cash on hand.

Other Income, Net

Other income, net primarily consists of changes in the fair value of the embedded derivatives in Nordion’s contracts, the net impact of pension related benefits and income related to deferred income on a lease associated with the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business.

Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes

Provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes in foreign jurisdictions and U.S. federal and state income taxes.

Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests

We conduct our operations through our subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2019, our subsidiaries were wholly owned by us, except for outstanding noncontrolling interests of 15% and 33% at our two China subsidiaries, respectively. In addition, a 15% noncontrolling interest remains from the August 2018 acquisition of Nelson Fairfield. Pursuant to the terms of the transaction, we acquired 85% of the equity interests of Nelson Fairfield and are required to acquire the 15% noncontrolling interest within three years from the date of the acquisition. For accounting purposes, we consolidate the results of operations of these subsidiaries with our results of operations and reflect the noncontrolling interests of our two China subsidiaries on our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) as net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests. Because the purchase obligation for the remaining 15% ownership of Nelson Fairfield is mandatory (valued at $13.6 million as of September 30, 2020), none of its earnings are allocated to noncontrolling interests.

 

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Constant Currency Sales Growth

“Constant currency” is a non-GAAP financial measure we use to assess performance excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Constant currency sales growth is calculated by translating prior year sales in local currency at the average exchange rates applicable for the current period. The translated results are then used to determine year-over-year percentage increases or decreases. We generally refer to such amounts calculated on a constant currency basis as excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates. These results should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Results on a constant currency basis, as we present them, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not measures of performance presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA

We use Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, non-GAAP financial measures, as the principal measures of our operating performance. Management believes Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are useful because they allow management to more effectively evaluate our operating performance and compare the results of our operations from period to period without the impact of certain non-cash items and non-routine items that we do not expect to continue at the same level in the future and other items that are not core to our operations. We believe that these measures are useful to our investors because they provide a more complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business than could be obtained absent this disclosure. In addition, we believe Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA will assist investors in making comparisons to our historical operating results and analyzing the underlying performance of our operations for the periods presented. Our management also uses Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA in their financial analysis and operational decision-making and Adjusted EBITDA serves as the metric for attainment of our primary annual incentive program. Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, a similarly titled measure used by other companies.

For more information regarding our definition and calculation of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, including information about its limitations as a tool for analysis, please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

Segment Income

Segment Income is the primary earnings measure we use to evaluate the performance of our reportable segments, as disclosed in the Segment and Geographic Information note to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Costs associated with support functions that are not directly associated with one of the three reportable segments, such as corporate operating expenses for executive management, accounting, information technology, legal, human resources, treasury, corporate development, tax, purchasing, and marketing are allocated to the segments based on net revenue. Segment Income excludes certain items which are included in income (loss) before tax as determined in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

 

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CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020 as compared to Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019

The following table sets forth the components of our results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2020      2019      $ Change      % Change  

Total net revenues

   $ 601,313      $ 584,842      $ 16,471        2.8

Total cost of revenues

     278,318        286,632        (8,314      (2.9 )% 

Total operating expenses

     169,358        160,083        9,275        5.8

Operating income

     153,637        138,127        15,510        11.2

Net income

     5,895        7,321        (1,426      (19.4 )% 

Adjusted Net Income(1)

     77,144        87,897        (10,753      (12.2 )% 

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

     306,797        285,457        21,340        7.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

  (1)

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. For more information regarding our calculation of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, including information about their limitations as tools for analysis and a reconciliation of net income, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

Total Net Revenues

The following table compares our revenues by type for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 to the nine months ended September 30, 2019.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2020      2019      $ Change      % Change  

Service

   $ 524,025      $ 501,875      $ 22,150        4.4

Product

     77,288        82,967        (5,679      (6.8 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   $ 601,313      $ 584,842      $ 16,471        2.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net revenues were $601.3 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $16.5 million, or 2.8%, as compared with the same period in the prior year. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, net revenues in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 increased approximately 3.9% compared with the same period in the prior year.

Service revenues

Service revenues increased $22.1 million, or 4.4%, to $524.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to $501.9 million for the same period in the prior year. The increase in net service revenues reflected a $14.7 million favorable impact from pricing in our Sterigenics segment, $12.6 million of increased demand for services related primarily to personal protective equipment used to provide protection against COVID-19 in our Nelson Labs segment, and a $6.8 million increase due to organic volume growth in our Sterigenics segment. This was partially offset by a $7.0 million unfavorable impact due to the temporary suspension of operations at our Atlanta facility and the permanent closure of the Willowbrook facility and a $4.6 million unfavorable impact from foreign exchange.

Product revenues

Product revenues decreased $5.7 million, or 6.8%, to $77.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to $83.0 million for the same period in the prior year. The decrease was

 

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primarily a result of a $10.6 million decrease in volume relating to the deferral of medical use Co-60 sales due to COVID-19 and the scheduled timing of industrial use Co-60 harvest and customer deliveries, partly offset by the impact from favorable pricing of $3.5 million.

Total Cost of Revenues

The following table compares our cost of revenues by type for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 to the nine months ended September 30, 2019.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2020      2019      $ Change      % Change  

Service

   $ 247,386      $ 248,406      $ (1,020      (0.4 %) 

Product

     30,932        38,226        (7,294      (19.1 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

   $ 278,318      $ 286,632      $ (8,314      (2.9 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues accounted for approximately 46.3% and 49.0% of our consolidated net revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Cost of service revenues

Cost of service revenues decreased $1.0 million, or 0.4%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to the prior year period. The decrease in cost of service revenues was primarily attributable to the closure of the Willowbrook facility, representing a decrease of $9.2 million, partially offset by incremental costs to support the organic revenue growth across the global network.

Cost of product revenues

Cost of product revenues decreased $7.3 million, or 19.1%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to the prior year period. The decrease was primarily a result of reduced sales volumes of both medical-use Co-60 and industrial-use Co-60 as referenced above.

Operating Expenses

The following table compares our operating expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 to the nine months ended September 30, 2019.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2020      2019      $ Change      % Change  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

   $ 125,369      $ 110,360      $ 15,009        13.6

Amortization of intangible assets

     43,989        43,942        47        0.1

Impairment of long-lived assets

     —          5,781        (5,781      (100 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

   $ 169,358      $ 160,083      $ 9,275        5.8
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Operating expenses accounted for approximately 28.2% and 27.4% of our consolidated net revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

SG&A

SG&A increased $15.0 million, or 13.6%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to the prior year period. The increase was driven primarily by the following:

 

   

a $19.3 million increase in third party professional fees, including $17.6 million of legal expenses, associated with EO litigation; the majority of these expenses were recorded in the second and third quarters of 2020, as the per occurrence limit of our environmental liability insurance had been reached for the Willowbrook litigation in the second quarter of 2020;

 

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$2.4 million in costs directly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the current year, including donations to related charitable causes and special bonuses for front-line personnel working on-site during lockdown periods;

 

   

$2.3 million in professional fees associated with the July 2020 acquisition of Iotron Industries Canada, Inc.; and

 

   

a $1.8 million increase in professional fees associated with preparation for an initial public offering.

Partially offsetting the above increases was an $11.1 million decrease in share-based compensation expense, $10.0 million of which related to the Class C Performance and Time Vesting Units of Topco Parent, which vested in the third quarter of 2019 based on the achievement of the aggregate distributions to Class A unitholders and the approval of the board of managers of Topco Parent.

Amortization of intangible assets

Amortization of intangible assets was $44.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 or 0.1% greater than the prior year period. The change was insignificant and there were only two months of amortization on newly acquired intangible assets related to the Iotron acquisition.

Impairment of long-lived assets

In 2019, we recorded long-lived asset impairment expenses due to the closure of our Willowbrook facility citing the expiration of the primary Willowbrook facility lease and the unstable legislative and regulatory landscape in Illinois.

Interest Expense, Net

Interest expense, net increased $52.7 million, or 46.0%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to the prior year period. The increase was largely due to a higher outstanding debt balance as a direct result of the December 2019 refinancing, a $50.0 million borrowing on the revolver during the first quarter of 2020, which was subsequently repaid in the second quarter of 2020, and the issuance of $100.0 million of First Lien Notes in July 2020 to fund the Iotron acquisition. The weighted average interest rate was 6.45% and 6.15% at September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Foreign exchange (gain) loss

Foreign exchange (gain) loss increased $13.8 million to a gain of $5.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to a loss of $8.5 million in the prior year period. In the third quarter of 2020, we identified an immaterial error in previously issued financial statements as a result of incorrectly recording the foreign exchange (gain) loss on a U.S. dollar denominated loan between a U.S. subsidiary and European subsidiary. We reflected the correction of this immaterial error within these financial statements for the period ended September 30, 2020, the effect of which increased foreign exchange gain by $2.2 million. The remainder of the variance is primarily due to a 7.4% change in the U.S. dollar to Euro exchange rate between September 2019 to September 2020.

Other Income, Net

Other income, net was $4.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and $4.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. The fluctuation was primarily driven by the change in the fair value of the embedded derivatives in Nordion’s contracts. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recorded an unrealized loss on embedded derivatives of $0.6 million as compared to an unrealized gain on embedded derivatives of $0.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019.

 

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Provision for Income Taxes

For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 we had an income tax benefit of $9.7 million, compared to tax expense of $12.6 million recorded in the prior year period. The change is driven primarily by the $24.7 million cumulative tax benefit realized in September 2020 as a result of final 951A regulations, partially offset by the $36.2 million valuation allowance.

Provision for income taxes for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 differed from the statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the impact of GILTI (including final 951A regulations), changes on items that are not expected to have a future tax benefit, and the foreign rate differential.

See “Trends and Key Factors Affecting our Results of Operations” above for further information on the provision for income taxes.

Net Income, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA

Net income for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 was $5.9 million, as compared to a net income of $7.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Adjusted Net Income was $77.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, as compared to $87.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to the factors described above. Adjusted EBITDA was $306.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, as compared to $285.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to the factors described above. Please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data” for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to its most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

Fiscal 2019 as compared to Fiscal 2018

The following table sets forth the components of our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2019      2018      $ Change      % Change  

Total net revenues

   $ 778,327      $ 746,149      $ 32,178        4.3

Total cost of revenues

     382,896        388,897        (6,001      1.5

Total operating expenses

     211,834        276,405        (64,571      (23.4 %) 

Operating income

     183,597        80,847        102,750        127.1

Net loss

     (20,425      (5,876      (14,549      (247.6 %) 

Adjusted Net Income(1)

     100,386        75,315        25,071        33.3

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

     379,932        340,637        39,295        11.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

  (1)

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. For more information regarding our calculation of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, including information about its limitations as a tool for analysis and a reconciliation of net loss, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, to Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA, please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

 

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Total Net Revenues

The following table compares our revenues by type for the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2018. Results from the Nelson Fairfield acquisition are included in the Nelson Labs segment for the post-acquisition periods beginning August 7, 2018. The Medical Isotopes business was included in 2018 through the date of its divestiture in July 2018.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

Net revenues for the year ended December 31,

   2019      2018      $ Change      % Change  

Service

   $ 673,037      $ 615,510      $ 57,527        9.3

Product

     105,290        130,639        (25,349      (19.4 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total net revenues

   $ 778,327      $ 746,149      $ 32,178        4.3
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net revenues were $778.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $32.2 million, or 4.3%, as compared with the prior year. Excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange rates, net revenues in the year ended December 31, 2019 increased approximately 5.7% compared with the same period in 2018.

Service revenues

Service revenues increased $57.5 million, or 9.3%, to $673.0 million in 2019 as compared to $615.5 million in 2018. The increase in net service revenues was primarily driven by organic volume growth of $27.9 million and $5.0 million in the Sterigenics and Nelson Labs segments, respectively, $16.5 million and $6.5 million favorable impacts related to pricing in the Sterigenics and Nelson Labs segments, respectively, and an $11.0 million increase from the impact of the Gibraltar Laboratories acquisition. These factors were partially offset by a $14.4 million decrease associated with the closure of the Willowbrook facility.

Product revenues

Product revenues decreased $25.3 million, or 19.4%, to $105.3 million in 2019 as compared to $130.6 million in 2018. The decrease in product revenues was primarily attributable to the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business in July 2018, which resulted in a decrease in revenues of $25.4 million.

Total Cost of Revenues

The following table compares our cost of revenues by type for the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

Cost of revenues for the year ended December 31,

   2019      2018      $ Change      % Change  

Service

   $ 333,290      $ 326,559      $ 6,731        2.1

Product

     49,606        62,338        (12,732      (20.4 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues

   $ 382,896      $ 388,897      $ (6,001      (1.5 )% 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total cost of revenues accounted for approximately 49.2% and 52.1% of our consolidated net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Cost of service revenues

Cost of service revenues increased $6.7 million, or 2.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily attributable to increased labor and other variable costs associated with higher sterilization processing and testing volumes referenced above. These increases were partially offset by a $2.2 million reduction in costs as a result of the Willowbrook facility closure.

 

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Cost of product revenues

Cost of product revenues decreased $12.7 million, or 20.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the prior year. The decrease was primarily attributable to the divestiture of the Medical Isotopes business in July 2018.

Operating Expenses

The following table compares our operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2018:

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

Operating expenses for the Year Ended December 31,

   2019      2018      $ Change      % Change  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

   $ 147,480      $ 133,363      $ 14,117        10.6

Amortization of intangible assets

     58,562        57,975        587        1.0

Impairment of long-lived assets

     5,792        34,981        (29,189      (83.4 %) 

Impairment of GA-MURR intangible assets

     —          50,086        (50,086      (100 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

   $ 211,834      $ 276,405      $ (64,571      (23.4 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Operating expenses accounted for approximately 27.2% and 37.0% of our consolidated net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

SG&A

SG&A increased $14.1 million, or 10.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the prior year. The increase was driven primarily by the following:

 

   

a $10.0 million increase in share-based compensation expense related to the Class C Performance and Time Vesting Units, which vested in the third quarter of 2019 based on the achievement of the aggregate distributions to the A Unitholder partners and the approval of the Board of Sotera Health Topco Parent, L.P. for accelerated vesting;

 

   

an $8.6 million increase in third party professional fees, including $6.5 million of legal expenses, associated with EO litigation; and

 

   

$2.0 million of costs associated with preparation for an initial public offering.

The increase was partially offset by the following items which were expensed in 2018 but did not recur in 2019:

 

   

a $4.3 million settlement with a vendor in our sterilization services; and

 

   

$2.4 million of contract termination and exits costs related to GA-MURR (as described below).

Asset impairments

In 2019, we recorded long-lived asset impairment expenses due to the closure of our Willowbrook facility citing the unstable legislative and regulatory landscape in Illinois, as well as the expiration of the primary Willowbrook facility lease.

In 2018, we recorded aggregate long-lived asset and intangible asset impairments expense of $35.0 million and $50.1 million, respectively, primarily due to the withdrawal from the GA-MURR project in early April 2018, which resulted in impairment of the associated long-lived assets (approximately $32.7 million) and intangible asset related to our MURR supply agreement (approximately $50.1 million). As a result of a strategic review of the Medical Isotopes business and other factors, we withdrew from the GA-MURR project which was intended to replace our supply of Molybdenum-99 (“Mo-99”) utilized in our former Medical Isotopes business.

 

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Amortization of intangible assets

Amortization of intangible assets was $58.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, or 1.0% above the prior year. The change was insignificant as there were no significant changes to our finite-lived intangible assets.

Interest Expense, Net

Interest expense, net increased $14.4 million, or 10.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the prior year. The increase was largely due to an increase in the outstanding amount of the Term Loan (due to a $320.0 million incremental borrowing in August 2019), the debt refinancing in December 2019 and an increase in the LIBOR rate in 2019. The weighted average interest rate was 6.08% and 5.92% at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Other Income, Net

Other income, net was $7.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 and $3.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The fluctuation was primarily driven by changes in the fair value of the embedded derivatives in Nordion’s contracts. We recorded an unrealized gain on embedded derivatives of $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to an unrealized loss on embedded derivatives of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Also, we recognized an additional $0.9 million of income associated with deferred income on a lease for the year ended December 31, 2019 versus the year ended December 31, 2018. The prior year only included approximately a half a year’s income compared to a full year in 2019.

Provision for Income Taxes

Provision for income tax expense decreased $10.6 million, or 35.2%, to $19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $30.1 million in the prior year primarily due to the income tax expense recognized on the sale of assets related to the Medical Isotopes business during 2018.

Provision for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2019 differed from the statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the foreign rate differential, the partial valuation allowance against our excess interest expense carryforward balance, GILTI expense referenced above and non-deductible expenses. Provision for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2018 differed from the statutory rate of 21% primarily due to the foreign rate differential, GILTI expense referenced above, an increase to our tax liability associated with the TCJA toll charge on unremitted foreign earnings, and the impact of the TCJA tax rate reduction on our deferred tax balances.

Net Loss, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA

Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $20.4 million, as compared to $5.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Adjusted Net Income was $100.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $75.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to the factors described above. Adjusted EBITDA was $379.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to $340.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to the factors described above. Please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data” for a reconciliation of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA to their most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

SEGMENT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

We currently have three reportable segments: Sterigenics, Nordion and Nelson Labs. Our chief operating decision maker evaluates performance and allocates resources within our business based on Segment Income,

 

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which excludes certain items which are included in income (loss) before tax as determined in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss). The accounting policies for our reportable segments are the same as those for the consolidated Company.

Our Segments

Sterigenics

Our Sterigenics business provides outsourced terminal sterilization and irradiation services for the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and advanced applications markets using three major technologies: gamma irradiation, EO processing and E-beam irradiation.

Nordion

Our Nordion business is a global provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are the key components to the gamma sterilization process.

As a result of the time required to meet regulatory and logistics requirements for delivery of radioactive products, combined with accommodations made to our customers to minimize disruptions to their operations during the installation of Co-60, Nordion sales patterns can often vary significantly from one quarter to the next. However, timing-related impacts on our sales performance tend to be resolved within several quarters, resulting in more consistent performance over longer periods of time. In addition, sales of production irradiators occur infrequently and tend to be for larger amounts.

Results for our Nordion segment are also impacted by Co-60 supplier mix, harvest schedules and product and service mix.

Nelson Labs

Our Nelson Labs business provides outsourced microbiological and analytical chemistry testing and advisory services for the medical device and pharmaceutical industries.

Other

The Other reportable segment consisted of the Medical Isotopes business, a global supplier of medical isotopes for research, healthcare diagnostic and therapeutic uses, prior to its divestiture on July 30, 2018. We finalized the sale of the assets of the Medical Isotopes business for $213.0 million.

For more information regarding our reportable segments please refer to “Business” and the Segment and Geographic Information note to consolidated financial statements elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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Segment Results for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019

The following tables compare the net revenues and segment income of our reportable segments for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 to the same period in the prior year:

 

     Nine Months Ended September 30,               
     2020     2019     $ Change      % Change  

Net Revenues

         

Sterigenics

   $ 363,954     $ 350,387     $ 13,568        3.9

Nordion

     86,034       91,869       (5,835      (6.4 %) 

Nelson Labs

     151,325       142,586       8,739        6.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Segment Income

         

Sterigenics

   $ 192,803     $ 180,362     $ 12,441        6.9

Nordion

     50,692       49,698       994        2.0

Nelson Labs

     63,302       55,397       7,905        14.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Segment Income Margin

         

Sterigenics

     53.0     51.5     

Nordion

     58.9     54.1     

Nelson Labs

     41.8     38.9     
  

 

 

   

 

 

      

Net Revenues

Sterigenics net revenues were $364.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $13.6 million, or 3.9%, as compared to the same prior year period. The increase reflects favorable impact from pricing of 4.2% and a 1.9% increase due to organic volume growth. This was partially offset by a 2.0% headwind associated with the temporary suspension of operations at our Atlanta facility and the permanent closure of the Willowbrook facility. Net revenues were also slightly negatively impacted by reduced demand for medical devices associated with elective procedures, which were deferred due to COVID-19.

Nordion net revenues were $86.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, a decrease of $5.8 million, or 6.4%, as compared to the same prior year period. Volume contributed to a decline of approximately 11.6% relating to timing of medical use Co-60 sales due to COVID-19 and the scheduled timing of industrial use Co-60 harvest and customer deliveries, partially offset by favorable pricing of 3.8%.

Nelson Labs net revenues were $151.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $8.7 million, or 6.1%, as compared to the same prior year period, primarily driven by an 8.9% increase in demand for testing services related to personal protective equipment used to provide protection against COVID-19, partially offset by a reduction in other lab testing volumes.

Segment Income

Sterigenics segment income was $192.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $12.4 million, or 6.9%, as compared to the same prior year period. The 6.9% increase in segment margin was primarily a result of favorable pricing referenced above.

Nordion segment income was $50.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $1.0 million, or 2.0%, as compared to the same prior year period. The increase in segment income was primarily due to a decrease in costs of medical use Co-60 attributed to COVID-19 disruptions of $4.1 million and favorable mix of Co-60 suppliers of $3.6 million. This was partially offset by the impact from the decline in sales referenced above.

 

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Nelson Labs segment income was $63.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, an increase of $7.9 million, or 14.3%, as compared to the same prior year period, primarily due to the increase in sales relating to personal protective equipment referenced above.

Segment Results for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

The following tables compare segment net revenue and segment income for the year ended December 31, 2019 to the year ended December 31, 2018:

 

     Year Ended December 31,               
     2019     2018     $ Change      % Change  

Net Revenues

         

Sterigenics

   $ 471,708     $ 435,733     $ 35,975        8.3

Nordion

     116,165       118,829       (2,664      (2.2 %) 

Nelson Labs

     190,454       166,217       24,237        14.6

Other

     —         25,370       (25,370      (100 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Segment Income

         

Sterigenics

   $ 244,904     $ 216,490     $ 28,414        13.1

Nordion

     62,196       60,288       1,908        3.2

Nelson Labs

     72,832       58,915       13,917        23.6

Other

     —         4,944       (4,944      (100 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Segment Income margin

         

Sterigenics

     51.9     49.7     

Nordion

     53.5     50.7     

Nelson Labs

     38.2     35.4     

Other

     —         19.5     
  

 

 

   

 

 

      

Net Revenues

Sterigenics net revenues were $471.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $36.0 million, or 8.3%, as compared to the prior year. The increase was driven by favorable impacts from organic volume growth and pricing of 6.4% and 3.8%, respectively. This was partially offset by a 3.3% headwind associated with the closure of the Willowbrook facility.

Nordion net revenues were $116.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $2.7 million, or 2.2%, as compared to the prior year. The decrease reflects a 3.8% impact from lower volumes of industrial use Co-60 and a 1.6% impact from the weakening of the Canadian dollar compared to the U.S. dollar in 2019 as compared to the prior year, partially offset by a 3.7% impact from favorable pricing.

Nelson Labs net revenues were $190.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $24.2 million, or 14.6%, as compared to the prior year. The increase is primarily attributable to a 6.6% impact from the acquisition of Gibraltar Laboratories, coupled with favorable pricing and growth in organic volumes of 3.9% and 3.0%, respectively.

We divested the Medical Isotopes business in July 2018 and as a result, no sales were recorded for the year ended December 31, 2019, as compared to net revenues of $25.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Segment Income

Sterigenics segment income was $244.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $28.4 million, or 13.1%, as compared to the prior year. The 2.2% increase in segment margin was driven by improved operating leverage as facilities operate at higher levels of utilization due to organic volume growth referenced above as well as the favorable pricing referenced above.

 

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Nordion segment income was $62.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $1.9 million, or 3.2%, as compared to the prior year. The increase in segment income was driven by the favorable pricing impact referenced above.

Nelson Labs segment income was $72.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $13.9 million, or 23.6%, as compared to the prior year. The increase in segment income was driven by the acquisition of Gibraltar Laboratories, coupled with favorable pricing and improved operating leverage due to an increase in organic volume as referenced above.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

The primary sources of liquidity for our business are cash flows from operations and borrowings under our credit facilities. We expect that our primary liquidity requirements will be to service our debt, to invest in fixed assets to build and/or expand existing facilities, to fund selective business acquisitions, make capital expenditures and for other general corporate purposes.

As of September 30, 2020, we had $108.4 million of cash and cash equivalents, of which $0.2 million was restricted cash. This is an increase of $45.4 million from the balance at December 31, 2019. Our foreign subsidiaries held cash of approximately $84.7 million at September 30, 2020 and $43.4 million at December 31, 2019, to meet their liquidity needs. No material restrictions exist to accessing cash held by our foreign subsidiaries.

Our capital expenditure program is a component of our long-term strategy. This program includes, among other things, investments in new and existing facilities, business expansion projects, Co-60 used by Sterigenics at its gamma irradiation facilities and information technology enhancements. During 2019, our capital expenditures amounted to $57.3 million, compared to $72.6 million in 2018. Through the first nine months of 2020, our capital expenditures were $33.6 million. This amount includes approximately $5.0 million related to facility enhancements at EO sterilization facilities within our Sterigenics segment. Our capital expenditures through the first nine months of 2020 were lower than initially planned as a result of deferrals due largely to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In 2021, we expect to continue to invest in facility expansions, ongoing routine maintenance for existing facilities, and acquisition of Co-60 for use by our Sterigenics segment in its gamma irradiation facilities. In addition, we expect to invest in special projects related to development of new Co-60 supply sources and facility enhancements at our EO sterilization facilities. We currently expect our capital expenditures to be higher in 2021 than in recent years and remain elevated over the next several years as we execute on those special projects in addition to our normal growth and maintenance related investments. For 2021, considering our typical growth and maintenance projects, along with the special projects, we expect capital expenditures to exceed $100.0 million, approximately $12 million to $17 million of which relates to enhancements at EO sterilization facilities.

We may choose to temporarily defer planned capital expenditures due to fluctuations in demand for our products and services resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and the needs of our customers.

We expect that cash on hand, operating cash flows and amounts available under our credit facilities will provide sufficient working capital to operate our business, make expected capital expenditures, meet litigation costs and meet foreseeable liquidity requirements, including debt service on our long-term debt, for at least the next twelve months. Subject to market conditions, we are considering upsizing our Revolving Credit Facility in the fourth quarter of 2020 to increase capacity under the facility by approximately $100-150 million. As of September 30, 2020, there were no borrowings on the Revolving Credit Facility. We expect to use cash provided by operations in excess of amounts needed for capital expenditures and required debt repayments to reduce our debt or to fund potential acquisitions, or for other general corporate purposes. Our ability to meet future working capital, capital expenditures and debt service requirements will depend on our future financial performance, which will be affected by a range of macroeconomic, competitive and business factors, particularly interest rates and changes in our industry, many of which are outside of our control.

 

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Cash Flow Information

Nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to nine months ended September 30, 2019

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2020      2019  

Net Cash Provided by (Used in):

     

Operating activities

   $ 98,740      $ 138,974  

Investing activities

     (139,920      (36,636

Financing activities

     83,961        (108,811

Effect of foreign currency exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

     2,639        (4,030
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, during the period

   $ 45,420      $ (10,503
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Operating activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities decreased $40.3 million to net cash provided of $98.7 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2020 compared to $139.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. The primary driver was higher net interest expense in 2020 of $52.6 million, driven by a higher weighted average interest rate and a larger balance of debt outstanding.

Investing activities

Historically, our principal uses of cash for investing activities were related to acquisitions of property, plant and equipment, including Co-60 purchases, and business acquisitions. These investments support our growth activities, including capacity expansions and expenditures that extend the life or productivity of existing assets.

For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 cash used by investing activities increased $103.3 million to $139.9 million compared to $36.6 million for the nine-month period ended September 30, 2019. The increase is attributable to the July 2020 acquisition of Iotron.

Financing activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was $84.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 as compared to net cash used of $108.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Proceeds of borrowings totaling $150.0 million were partially offset by payments on debt. In March 2020, we borrowed $50.0 million on our revolving credit facility to increase our cash balance in response to concerns regarding the COVID-19 impact to the financial markets; the $50.0 million was repaid in June 2020. In July 2020 we issued $100.0 million of First Lien Notes to fund the acquisition of Iotron. The primary use of cash in the nine months ended September 30, 2019 was dividends to shareholders and principal payments on debt.

Year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the year ended December 31, 2018

 

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   2019      2018  

Net Cash Provided by (Used in):

     

Operating activities

   $ 149,041      $ 119,563  

Investing activities

     (57,257      96,638  

Financing activities

     (126,030      (191,857

Effect of foreign currency exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

     485        (3,676
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, during the period

   $ (33,761    $ 20,668  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Operating activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities increased $29.4 million to net cash provided of $149.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $119.6 million for the prior year. The higher net loss in 2019 was impacted by a non-operating loss on extinguishment of debt of $30.2 million, lower deferred income taxes of $26.3 million and a non-cash impairment of long-lived assets of $5.8 million. This compares to non-cash impairments of $85.1 million in 2018 that were more than offset by a gain on the sale of the Medical Isotopes business of $95.9 million. This was partially offset by a $12.4 million decrease in net cash from operating assets and liabilities, resulting in a cash outflow of $8.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $4.0 million of cash inflows in the prior year. The remainder of the variance is due to a $10.1 million decrease in unrealized foreign exchange losses.

Investing activities

For the year ended December 31, 2019 cash used by investing activities was $57.3 million attributable to purchases of property, plant and equipment, compared to cash provided by investing activities of $96.6 million in the prior year. Cash from investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was a direct result of proceeds from the sale of the Medical Isotopes business of $213.0 million, partially offset by the acquisition of Nelson Fairfield of $50.6 million and capital expenditures of $72.6 million.

Financing activities

Net cash used in financing activities was $126.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to $191.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Our principal uses of cash for financing activities in 2019 were $2,561.1 million in payments on debt primarily in conjunction with the December 2019 refinancing as well as dividends and distributions to our sole stockholder of $691.2 million. This was partially offset by proceeds from borrowings totaling $3,144.6 million.

Debt Facilities

Senior Secured Credit Facilities

On December 13, 2019, Sotera Health Holdings, LLC (“SHH”), our wholly owned subsidiary, entered into new senior secured first lien credit facilities (the “Senior Secured Credit Facilities”) and settled its previously outstanding term loan and senior notes.

The Senior Secured Credit Facilities consist of both a senior secured first lien term loan (the “Term Loan”) and a $190 million senior secured first lien revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). The Term Loan matures on December 13, 2026, and the Revolving Credit Facility matures on December 13, 2024. The Senior Secured Credit Facilities also provide SHH the right at any time and under certain conditions to request incremental term loans or incremental revolving credit commitments based on a formula defined in the Senior Secured Credit Facilities. As of September 30, 2020, total borrowings under the Term Loan were $2,109.4 million.

Beginning on June 30, 2020, the Term Loan is paid in equal quarterly installments in aggregate annual amounts equal to 1.00% of the Term Loan original principal amount, while the remaining balance matures on December 13, 2026. The Term Loan may bear interest at LIBOR or an alternate base rate (“ABR”) subject to a 1.00% floor plus, an incremental margin of 4.50% in the case of LIBOR loans and 3.50% in the case of ABR loans. The weighted average interest rate on borrowings under the Term Loan at September 30, 2020 was 5.50%.

As of September 30, 2020, and December 31, 2019, capitalized debt issuance costs totaled $4.3 million and $4.7 million, respectively, and debt discounts totaled $39.3 million and $44.0 million, respectively, related to the Senior Secured Credit Facilities. Such costs are recorded as a reduction of debt on our consolidated balance sheets and amortized as a component of interest expense over the term of the debt agreement.

 

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Borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at a rate per annum equal to an applicable margin, plus, at our option, either (a) an ABR or (b) a LIBOR rate. The applicable margin under the Revolving Credit Facility may be reduced by reference to a leverage-based pricing grid with step-downs of 0.25% at a specified senior secured first lien net leverage ratio. In addition to paying interest on any outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility, SHH is required to pay a commitment fee to the lenders under the Revolving Credit Facility in respect of the unutilized commitments thereunder and customary letter of credit fees. The Revolving Credit Facility contains a maximum senior secured first lien net leverage ratio covenant of 9.00 to 1.00, tested on the last day of each fiscal quarter if, on the last day of such fiscal quarter, the sum of (i) the aggregate principal amount of the revolving loans then outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility, plus (ii) the aggregate amount of letter of credit (“LC”) disbursements that have not been reimbursed within two business days following the end of the fiscal quarter, exceeds the greater of $76.0 million and 40.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the revolving commitments then in effect. Although this covenant did not apply as the conditions were not met, as of September 30, 2020 the first lien net leverage ratio, as defined in the Revolving Credit Facility, was approximately 5.10 to 1.00.

As of September 30, 2020, there were no borrowings on the Revolving Credit Facility. SHH borrowed $50.0 million on the Revolving Credit Facility during the first quarter of 2020 which was repaid in the second quarter of 2020. The interest rate on the borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility averaged approximately 5.0%.

The Senior Secured Credit Facilities contain additional covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to engage in certain activities, such as incur indebtedness or permit to exist any lien on any property or asset now owned or hereafter acquired, as specified in the debt facility. The Senior Secured Credit Facilities also contain certain customary affirmative covenants and events of default, including upon a change of control. As of September 30, 2020, we were in compliance with all the Senior Secured Credit Facilities covenants.

All of SHH’s obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities are unconditionally guaranteed by the Company and each existing and subsequently acquired or organized direct or indirect wholly-owned domestic restricted subsidiary of SHH, with customary exceptions including, among other things, where providing such guarantees is not permitted by law, regulation or contract or would result in material adverse tax consequences. All obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, and the guarantees of such obligations, are secured by substantially all of the assets of the borrower and guarantors, subject to permitted liens and other exceptions and exclusions, as outlined in the Senior Secured Credit Facilities.

Outstanding letters of credit are collateralized by encumbrances against the Revolving Credit Facility and the collateral pledged thereunder, or by cash placed on deposit with the issuing bank. As of September 30, 2020, the Company had $64.3 million of letters of credit issued against the Revolving Credit Facility, resulting in total availability under the Revolving Credit Facility of $125.7 million.

First Lien Notes

On July 31, 2020, SHH issued $100.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior secured first lien notes due 2026 (the “First Lien Notes”), which mature on December 13, 2026. The First Lien Notes bear interest at a rate equal to LIBOR subject to a 1.00% floor plus 6.00% per annum. Interest is payable on a quarterly basis with no principal due until maturity. The weighted average interest rate on the First Lien Notes at September 30, 2020 was 7.00%.

SHH is entitled to redeem all or a portion of the First Lien Notes, at any time and from time to time, subject to certain premiums depending on the date of redemption: any time on or prior to July 31, 2021, a customary make-whole premium applies and, thereafter, specified premiums that decline to zero apply (in each case as described in the indenture governing the First Lien Notes).

 

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All of SHH’s obligations under the First Lien Notes are unconditionally guaranteed by the Company and each existing and subsequently acquired or organized direct or indirect wholly-owned domestic restricted subsidiary of SHH, with customary exceptions including, among other things, where providing such guarantees is not permitted by law, regulation or contract or would result in material adverse tax consequences. All obligations under the First Lien Notes, and the guarantees of such obligations, are secured by substantially all of the assets of the borrower and guarantors, subject to permitted liens and other exceptions and exclusions, as outlined in the First Lien Notes. Such collateral is substantially the same collateral that secures the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and Second Lien Notes. Such collateral securing the First Lien Notes ranks pari passu with that of the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and has priority over the collateral securing the Second Lien Notes.

At September 30, 2020, capitalized debt issuance costs were $0.7 million and debt discounts were $2.9 million, respectively, related to the First Lien Notes, which are recorded as a reduction of debt on our consolidated balance sheets and amortized into interest expense over the term of the debt agreement.

Second Lien Notes

On December 13, 2019, SHH issued $770.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior secured second lien notes due 2027 (the “Second Lien Notes”), which mature on December 13, 2027. The Second Lien Notes bear interest at a rate equal to LIBOR subject to a 1.00% floor plus 8.00% per annum. The weighted average interest rate on the Second Lien Notes at September 30, 2020 was 9.00%.

SHH is entitled to redeem all or a portion of the Second Lien Notes, at any time and from time to time, subject to certain premiums depending on the date of redemption: any time on or prior to December 13, 2020, a customary make-whole premium applies and, thereafter, specified premiums that decline to zero apply (in each case as described in the indenture governing the Second Lien Notes). In addition, under certain circumstances, such as an initial public offering or certain changes of control, SHH has certain additional redemption rights (as described in the indenture governing the Second Lien Notes).

All of SHH’s obligations under the Second Lien Notes are unconditionally guaranteed by the Company and each existing and subsequently acquired or organized direct or indirect wholly-owned domestic restricted subsidiary of SHH, with customary exceptions including, among other things, where providing such guarantees is not permitted by law, regulation or contract or would result in material adverse tax consequences. All obligations under the Second Lien Notes, and the guarantees of such obligations, are secured by substantially all of the assets of the borrower and guarantors, subject to permitted liens and other exceptions and exclusions, as outlined in the Second Lien Notes. Such collateral is substantially the same collateral that secures the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the First Lien Notes, and any security interest or lien on shared collateral securing the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or the First Lien Notes shall have priority over any security interest or lien on shared collateral securing the Second Lien Notes.

At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, capitalized debt issuance costs were $1.6 million and $1.8 million and debt discounts were $21.0 million and $23.2 million, respectively, related to the Second Lien notes, which are recorded as a reduction of debt on our consolidated balance sheets and amortized into interest expense over the term of the debt agreement.

2019 Refinancing

In conjunction with the December 2019 refinancing, the company redeemed, in full, the previously outstanding $1,659.0 million aggregate Term Loan due 2022, its $450.0 million Senior Notes due 2023 (“Senior Notes”) and $425.0 million Senior PIK (“paid in kind”) Toggle Notes due 2021. In total, we accelerated the amortization of $13.4 million of debt issuance and discount costs and recognized $14.6 million representing premiums paid in connection with the early extinguishment of the Senior Notes. In connection with the refinancing, we also recognized an additional $2.1 million of expense related to debt issuance and discount costs.

 

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We recognized these costs within the loss on extinguishment of debt in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Any additional proceeds were used to fund a dividend to our sole stockholder of $275.0 million.

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMERCIAL COMMITMENTS

The following table describes our significant contractual cash obligations as of December 31, 2019:

 

     Payments due by period  

(thousands of U.S. dollars)

   Total      Less than
1 Year
     2-3 Years      4-5 Years      More than 5
Years
 

Long-term debt (a)

   $ 4,387,911      $ 235,566      $ 444,397      $ 446,296      $ 3,261,652  

Lease obligations:

              

Capital (b)

     31,172        1,288        2,204        2,506        25,174  

Operating (c)

     60,173        11,782        19,435        10,698        18,258  

Supply and service obligations (d)

     1,619,045        38,983        64,657        70,616        1,444,789  

Direct material costs (e)

     28,185        13,144        13,651        1,139        251  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 6,126,486      $ 300,763      $ 544,344      $ 531,255      $ 4,750,124  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(a)

Represents principal and interest payments on the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and Second Lien Notes. We have calculated the interest payments on the Senior Secured Credit Facilities and Second Lien Notes at an average of 6.1% (the LIBOR floor plus 4.5%) and 9.7% (the LIBOR floor plus 8.00%), respectively. Subsequent to December 31, 2019, SHH issued $100.0 million of First Lien Notes, which are not reflected in the table above.

(b)

Consists of payments, net of interest, under our capital leases for various equipment and facilities.

(c)

Represents minimum lease payments under our operating leases for several of our facilities and other property and equipment, net of sublease payments. We elected to early adopt ASU 2016-02 Leases as of January 1, 2020, resulting in the recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $47.4 million and $48.9 million, respectively on our consolidated balance sheet.

(d)

Consists of our best estimate of our obligations under various supply and service agreements, primarily Co-60, that are enforceable and legally binding on us.

(e)

Consists of our best estimate of our obligations to purchase EO gas under commitments that are enforceable and legally binding on us. We have excluded contracts to purchase energy and other supplies, which generally have terms of one year or less. Our contract to purchase EO gas in the U.S. requires us to purchase all our requirements from our supplier, and our contracts to purchase EO gas outside the U.S. generally require that we purchase a specified percentage of our requirements for our operations in the countries covered by those contracts. Although our EO gas contracts generally do not contain fixed minimum purchase volumes, we have calculated the amounts set forth in the table above based on the percentage of our requirements specified in the contracts and our budgeted purchase volumes for those periods.

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

We do not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which are established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on the financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity or capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors other than operating leases.

At December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had $92.9 million and $90.5 million, respectively, of standby letters of credit, surety bonds and other bank guarantees outstanding, primarily in favor of local and state licensing

 

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authorities for future decommissioning costs, and to support the unfunded portion of our pension obligation. We are obligated to provide financial assurance to local and state licensing authorities for possible future decommissioning costs associated with the various facilities that hold Co-60. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, $49.3 million and $47.8 million, respectively, of the standby letters of credit and surety bonds referenced above were outstanding in favor of the various local and state licensing authorities in the event we defaulted on our decommissioning obligation.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risks, primarily from changes in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange, in the ordinary course of business.

Commodity Price Risk

We purchase our supply of EO gas from various suppliers around the world, but in the United States there is a sole supplier for EO gas used for applications relevant to our business. We are exposed to market risk based on fluctuations in the price of EO gas.

We actively seek to manage the risk of fluctuating prices through long-term supply and service contracts. Most of our Sterigenics customer contracts contain provisions that permit us to pass all or a portion of our supply price increases to our customers, though some of our contracts do not contain these provisions. Even for contracts that do contain these provisions, there could be at least a brief lag between when we incur increased costs for supplies and when we can pass through these costs to our customers. In addition, even when we are contractually permitted to pass on price increases, we may decide not to do so to preserve our sales volumes.

Regulatory Risk

We are subject to extensive regulatory requirements and routine regulatory audits, and we must receive permits, licenses, and/or regulatory clearance or approval for our operations. Regulatory agencies may refuse to grant approval or clearance or may require the provision of additional data, and regulatory processes may be time consuming and costly, and their outcome may be uncertain in certain of the countries in which we operate. Regulatory agencies may also change policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, each of which could impact our ability to provide our services. Our failure to comply with the regulatory requirements of these agencies may subject us to administratively or judicially imposed sanctions. These sanctions include, among others, warning letters, fines, civil penalties, criminal penalties, injunctions, debarment, product seizure or detention and total or partial suspension of operations. The failure to receive or maintain, or delays in the receipt of, relevant U.S. or international regulatory qualifications could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.

Interest Rate Risk

We are subject to interest rate risk on borrowings under our outstanding borrowings as the borrowings bear interest at floating rates. In October 2017, the company entered into two interest rate cap agreements with a total notional amount of $400.0 million for a total option premium of $0.6 million. The interest rate cap agreements terminated on September 30, 2020.

In June 2020, we entered into two interest rate cap agreements with notional amounts of $1,000.0 million and $500.0 million, respectively, for a total option premium of $0.3 million. These terminate on August 31, 2021 and February 28, 2022, respectively. The interest rate caps limit our cash flow exposure related to the LIBOR base rate under a portion of our variable rate borrowings to 1.0%.

During the third quarter of 2019, we entered into two interest rate swap agreements to hedge our exposure to interest rate movements and to manage interest expense related to our outstanding variable-rate debt. The

 

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notional amount of the interest rate swap agreements totaled $1,000.0 million and terminated on August 31, 2020. These swaps were designated as hedges against the changes in cash flows attributable to changes in LIBOR, the benchmark interest rate being hedged. We received interest at one-month LIBOR and paid a fixed interest rate under the terms of the swap agreement. After applying the effects of interest rate caps referenced above, a 1.0% increase in the interest rate under our outstanding obligations as of September 30, 2020, of $2,979.9 million, would increase interest expense by approximately $3.5 million per year.

See the Financial Instruments and Financial Risk note to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for a summary of the activity of the interest rate caps for the periods presented.

Foreign Currency Risk

We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in foreign currencies. We present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars. Consequently, increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the non-U.S. dollar functional currencies of the countries in which we operate may affect the value of these in our consolidated financial statements, even if their value has not changed in their local currency. We translate the financial statements of subsidiaries whose local currency is their functional currency to their U.S. dollar equivalents at end-of-period exchange rates for assets and liabilities and at average exchange rates for revenues and expenses. These translations could significantly affect the comparability of our results between financial periods and/or result in significant changes to the carrying value of our assets and liabilities. Translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within equity.

Our results of operations are impacted by currency exchange rate fluctuations to the extent that we are unable to match net revenues received in foreign currencies with expenses incurred in the same currency. Transaction gains and losses arising from fluctuations in currency exchange rates on transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) as foreign exchange (gain) loss.

Approximately 39.6% of our revenues and 45.4% of our consolidated total assets as of September 30, 2020 are derived from operations outside the United States. Holding other variables constant (such as interest rates and debt levels), if the U.S. dollar had appreciated by 10% against the foreign currencies used by our operations in the combined nine months ended September 30, 2020, revenues would have been reduced by approximately $23.8 million and gross profit by approximately $11.5 million.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

The following subsections describe our most critical accounting policies, estimates, and assumptions. Our discussion of critical accounting policies and estimates is intended to supplement, not duplicate, our summary of significant accounting policies so that readers will have greater insight into the uncertainties involved in these areas. Our accounting policies are more fully described in the Significant Accounting Policies note to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions at a specific point in time and in certain circumstances that affect amounts reported in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. In preparing these consolidated financial statements, management has made its best estimates and judgments of certain amounts, giving due consideration to materiality. The application of accounting policies involves the exercise of judgment and use of assumptions as to future uncertainties and, as a result, actual results could differ from these estimates.

Under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. As an

 

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emerging growth company, we have elected to take advantage of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies or at which time we conclude it is appropriate to avail ourselves of early adoption provisions of applicable standards. As a result, our results of operations and financial statements may not be comparable to the results of operations and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards.

Revenue Recognition. The majority of our sales agreements contain performance obligations satisfied at a point in time when control of promised goods or services have transferred to our customers. For agreements with multiple performance obligations, judgment is required to determine whether performance obligations specified in these agreements are distinct and should be accounted for as separate revenue transactions for recognition purposes. In these types of agreements, we generally allocate sales price to each distinct obligation based on the relative price of each item sold in stand-alone transactions. Revenues recognized over time are generally accounted for using an input measure to determine progress completed as of the end of the period.

Refunds, returns, warranties and other related obligations are not material to any of our business units, nor do we incur material incremental costs to secure customer contracts.

The Sterigenics segment provides outsourced terminal sterilization and irradiation services for the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and advanced applications markets. We typically have multi-year service contracts with our significant customers, and these sales contracts are primarily based on a customer’s purchase order. Given the relatively short turnaround times, performance obligations are generally satisfied at a point-in-time upon the completion of sterilization or irradiation processing once approved by our quality assurance process at which time the service is complete.

The Nordion segment is a provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are key components to the gamma sterilization process. Revenue from the sale of Co-60 radiation sources is recognized at a point-in-time upon satisfaction of our performance obligations for delivery/installation and disposal of existing sources. Revenue from the production of equipment in our Nordion segment is recognized over time using an input measure of costs incurred and is immaterial to the overall business.

The Nelson Labs segment provides outsourced microbiological and analytical chemistry testing and advisory services for the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We provide our customers mission-critical lab testing services, which assess the product quality, effectiveness, patient safety and end-to-end sterility of products. These services are necessary for our customers’ regulatory approvals, product releases and ongoing product performance evaluations. Nelson Labs services are generally provided on a fee-for-service or project basis, and we recognize revenues over time using an input measure of time incurred to determine progress completed at the end of the period.

We do not capitalize sales commissions as substantially all of our sales commission programs have an amortization period of one year or less. Furthermore, costs to fulfill a contract are not material.

Provisions for discounts, rebates to customers, and other adjustments are provided for as reductions in net revenues in the period the related sale was recorded. Shipping and handling charges billed to customers are included in net revenues, and the related shipping and handling costs are included in cost of net revenues on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by us from a customer, are excluded from net revenue.

Payment terms vary by the type and location of the customer and the products or services offered. Generally, the time between when revenue is recognized and when payment is due is not significant. We do not evaluate whether the selling price contains a financing component for contracts that have a duration of less than one year.

 

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Long-Lived Assets Other than Goodwill. We review long-lived assets, including finite-lived intangibles for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may be impaired. Events or circumstances which would result in an impairment assessment include operating losses, a significant change in the use of an asset, or the planned disposal or sale of the asset. When we evaluate assets for impairment, we make certain judgments and estimates, including interpreting current economic indicators and market valuations, evaluating our strategic plans with regards to operations, historical and anticipated performance of operations, and other factors. If we incorrectly anticipate these factors, or unexpected events occur, our operating results could be materially affected. The asset or asset group would be considered impaired when the future net undiscounted cash flows generated by the asset or asset group are less than its carrying value.

An impairment loss would be recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value of the asset or asset group exceeds its estimated fair value. We provide additional information about our long-lived assets other than goodwill in notes titled Property, Plant and Equipment and Capital Leases and Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangibles. Assets and liabilities of the business acquired are accounted for at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. Any excess of the cost of the acquisition over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. We generally supplement management expertise with valuation specialists in performing appraisals to assist us in determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. These valuations require us to make estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. We generally amortize our intangible assets over their useful lives with the exception of indefinite lived intangible assets. We do not amortize goodwill, but we evaluate it annually for impairment. Therefore, the allocation of the purchase price to intangible assets and goodwill has a significant impact on future operating results.

Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets, primarily certain regulatory licenses and tradenames, are tested for impairment annually as of October 1. If circumstances change during interim periods between annual tests that would indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable, the company would test such assets at an interim date for impairment. Factors which would necessitate an interim impairment assessment include prolonged negative industry or economic trends and significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results.

We performed a quantitative assessment of all reporting units (Sterigenics, Nordion and Nelson Labs) as of October 1, 2019. The fair value of each reporting unit was calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis which was dependent on subjective market participant assumptions determined by management. Assumptions used in the analyses included discount rates and projected operating cash flows. Estimates of future cash flows are based upon relevant data at a point-in-time, are subject to change, and could vary from actual results. The estimated fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying amount (including goodwill) by a minimum of 60% as of October 1, 2019. No factors were identified that would result in the potential impairment to the indefinite-lived intangible assets. In addition, there have been no significant events or circumstances that occurred since the annual assessment date of October 1 that would change the conclusions reached above. We provide additional information about our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets in the Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets note to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Asset Retirement Obligations (“ARO”). ARO are legal obligations associated with the retirement of long-lived assets or the exit of a leased facility. We lease various facilities where sterilization and ionization services are performed. Under the lease agreements, we are required to return the facilities to their original condition and to perform decommissioning activities. In addition, certain of our owned facilities are required to be decommissioned when we vacate the facility. The decommissioning costs are paid in the period the expenditure is incurred. We recognize an initial liability for ARO’s at fair value, and the associated asset retirement costs are then capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset. Accounting for the ARO at inception and in subsequent periods includes the determination of the present value of the ARO liability and offsetting long-

 

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lived asset, the subsequent accretion of the ARO liability and depletion of the long-lived asset, and a periodic review of the ARO liability estimates and associated discount rates used in the analysis. We provide additional information about our ARO in the Asset Retirement Obligations (“ARO”) note to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Income Taxes. We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes whereby we recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements. We periodically review our deferred tax assets for recoverability and establish a valuation allowance based on historical taxable income, projected future taxable income, expected timing of reversals of existing temporary timing differences and the implementation tax planning strategies. Deferred tax assets will be reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on management’s estimate, it is more likely than not that a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in a future period. The estimates used in the recognition of deferred tax assets are subject to revision in future periods based on new facts and circumstances. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income in certain tax jurisdictions, or if there is a material change in the effective income tax rates or time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, we could be required to increase our valuation allowance, which would increase our effective income tax rate and could result in an adverse impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.

We determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. In evaluating whether a tax position has met the more likely-than-not recognition threshold, we presume that the position will be examined by the appropriate taxing authority and that the taxing authority will have full knowledge of all relevant information. A tax position that meets the more likely-than-not recognition threshold is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Determining what constitutes an individual tax position and whether the more likely-than-not recognition threshold is met for a tax position are matters of judgment based on the individual facts and circumstances of that position evaluated in light of all available evidence. We review and adjust tax estimates periodically because of ongoing examinations by, and settlements with, the various taxing authorities, as well as changes in tax laws, regulations, and precedent.

We are subject to taxation from federal, state and local, and foreign jurisdictions. Tax positions are settled primarily through the completion of audits within each individual tax jurisdiction or the closing of a statute of limitation. Changes in applicable tax law or other events may also require us to revise past estimates. The United States Internal Revenue Service routinely conducts audits of our federal income tax returns. Additional information regarding income taxes is included in the Income Taxes note to consolidated financial statements.

Commitments and Contingencies. We are, and will likely continue to be, involved in a number of legal proceedings, government investigations and claims, which we believe generally arise in the course of our business, given our size, history, complexity and the nature of our business, products, customers, regulatory environment and industries in which we participate. These legal proceedings, investigations and claims generally involve a variety of legal theories and allegations, including, without limitation, personal injury (e.g., slip and falls, burns, vehicle accidents), regulation (e.g., failure to meet specification or failure to comply with regulatory requirements), commercial claims (e.g., breach of contract, economic loss, misrepresentation), financial (e.g., taxes, reporting), employment (e.g., wrongful termination, discrimination, benefits matters) and other claims for damage and relief.

We record a liability for such contingencies to the extent we conclude that their occurrence is both probable and estimable. We consider many factors in making these assessments, including the professional judgment of experienced members of management and our legal counsel. We have made estimates as to the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes and the amounts of such potential losses. In our opinion, the ultimate outcome of these proceedings and claims is not anticipated to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position,

 

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results of operations, or cash flows. However, the ultimate outcome of proceedings, government investigations and claims is unpredictable and actual results could be materially different from our estimates. We record gain contingencies when realized, and expected recoveries under applicable insurance contracts when we are assured of recovery. Refer to the Commitments and Contingencies note of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

For a description of recent accounting pronouncements applicable to our business, see the Recent Accounting Standards note to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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BUSINESS

Overview

 

LOGO

We are a leading global provider of mission-critical sterilization and lab testing and advisory services to the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We are driven by our mission: Safeguarding Global Health®. We provide end-to-end sterilization as well as microbiological and analytical lab testing and advisory services to help ensure that medical, pharmaceutical and food products are safe for healthcare practitioners, patients and consumers in the United States and around the world. Our customers include more than 40 of the top 50 medical device companies and eight of the top ten global pharmaceutical companies (based on revenue). Our services are an essential aspect of our customers’ manufacturing process and supply chains, helping to ensure sterilized medical products reach healthcare practitioners and patients. Most of these services are necessary for our customers to satisfy applicable government requirements. We give our customers confidence that their products meet regulatory, safety and effectiveness requirements. With a combined tenure across our businesses of nearly 200 years and our industry-recognized scientific and technological expertise, we help to ensure the safety of millions of patients and healthcare practitioners around the world every year. Across our 63 facilities worldwide, we have nearly 2,900 employees who are dedicated to safety and quality. We are a trusted partner to more than 5,800 customers in over 50 countries.

Our Businesses

We serve our customers throughout their product lifecycles, from product design to manufacturing and delivery, helping to ensure the sterility, effectiveness and safety of their products for the end user. We operate across two core businesses: sterilization services and lab services. Each of our businesses has a long-standing

 

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record and is a leader in its respective market, supported and connected by our core capabilities including deep end market, regulatory, technical and logistics expertise. The combination of Sterigenics, our terminal sterilization business, and Nordion, our Co-60 supply business, makes us the only vertically integrated global gamma sterilization provider in the sterilization industry. This provides us with additional insights and allows us to better serve our customers.

 

   

Sterilization Services (our Sterigenics and Nordion brands):

 

   

Under our Sterigenics brand, we provide outsourced terminal sterilization and irradiation services for the medical device, pharmaceutical, food safety and advanced applications markets. Terminal sterilization is the process of sterilizing a product in its final packaging. It is an essential, and often government-mandated, step in the manufacturing process of healthcare products before they are shipped to end-users. These products include medical protective barriers, including PPE, procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters, wound care products, laboratory products and pharmaceuticals. We offer our customers a complete range of outsourced terminal sterilization services, primarily using the three major sterilization technologies: gamma irradiation, EO processing and E-beam irradiation.

 

   

Gamma irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to gamma rays emitted by Co-60. Gamma rays can penetrate even dense materials to kill microbes. Gamma is particularly effective at sterilizing high-density medical products such as sutures, surgical tools and stents.

 

   

EO processing: A gas sterilization process in which pallets of packaged goods are loaded into a secure chamber that is then injected with EO gas to penetrate the packaging. EO is the most widely used gaseous sterilization agent in the world and has been in use for nearly 90 years. The broad application to a range of medical devices is attributed to the fact that EO is compatible with many materials that cannot tolerate or are degraded by radiation or moist heat sterilization. For this reason, it is commonly the only method available to safely and effectively sterilize procedure kits, PPE and many devices used in cardiac procedures.

 

   

E-beam irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to machine-generated radiation in the form of a stream of electrons. E-beam is particularly effective for low density homogenous products such as glass labware. Several medical devices products also rely on E-beam as an effective form of sterilization, including certain types of syringes. In addition to medical device sterilization, E-beam can also be used as an effective technology for materials modification, such as the crosslinking of certain polymers or for enriching the color of gemstones.

 

   

Under our Nordion brand, we are the leading global provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are key components to the gamma sterilization process. Co-60 is a radioactive isotope that is needed by medical device manufacturers and sterilizers including Sterigenics. Co-60 decays and must be replaced over time to produce the desired level of irradiation. We have the most comprehensive access to nuclear power reactor operators around the world which are able to produce Co-60. The capabilities that we provide to Nordion’s customers include handling and processing of Co-60, recycling of depleted sources and global logistics enabled by our licensed container fleet. We are integral to our customers’ operations due to highly coordinated and complex installation processes. In addition, under our Nordion brand, we are a leading supplier of Co-60 sources for stereotactic radiosurgery devices (such as the Gamma Knife®), which are used for certain oncology applications.

 

   

Lab Services (our Nelson Labs brand):

 

   

Under our Nelson Labs brand, we are a global leader in outsourced microbiological and analytical chemistry testing and advisory services for the medical device and pharmaceutical industries. We provide our customers mission-critical lab testing services, which assess the product quality, effectiveness, patient safety and end-to-end sterility of products. These services are necessary for our customers’ regulatory approvals, product releases and ongoing product performance evaluations.

 

   

Microbiology testing services help to identify and measure the potential risks of microbes to a product and ensure that the quality of the products is maintained.

 

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Analytical chemistry lab testing is also a critical part of the pharmaceutical drug and medical device development and manufacturing process. This testing provides first-hand information as to the content, quality and safety of raw materials, intermediates and finished products.

 

   

We also provide expert advisory services to aid customers in navigating the regulatory requirements applicable throughout the product lifecycle.

Nelson Labs serves over 3,800 customers across 13 facilities in the United States, Mexico, Asia and Europe. We have a comprehensive array of over 800 laboratory tests supporting our customers from initial product development and sterilization validation, through regulatory approval and ongoing product testing for sterility, safety and quality assurance. Our customers rely on our expertise in their industries to get their medical device and pharmaceutical products to market.

 

   

Medical device lab testing services include: microbiology, biocompatibility and toxicology assessments, material characterization, sterilization validation, sterility assurance, packaging validation and distribution simulation, reprocessing validations, facility and process validation and performance validation and verification of PPE barriers and material.

 

   

Pharmaceutical lab testing services include: microbiology, biocompatibility and toxicology assessments, extractables and leachables evaluations of pharmaceutical containers, sterilization validation, sterility assurance, packaging validation and distribution simulation and facility and process validation.

Nelson Labs is highly complementary to our sterilization services business. In particular, microbiological testing validates the configuration and effectiveness of the sterilization process.

We believe that our sterilization service offerings, our Co-60 supply capabilities and the broad capabilities of our lab services business give us unique insights and technical expertise to serve the mission-critical needs of medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers. We believe these provide us with a competitive advantage over other outsourced sterilization and lab testing service providers.

Our Markets and Customers

Medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers often outsource their sterilization and lab services needs, as the technical and regulatory expertise and infrastructure required to establish those capabilities in-house can result in significant cost and resource burden.

We estimate that the total global addressable market for terminal sterilization and outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing was approximately $33 billion in 2019. Global terminal sterilization accounted for $3 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019. Global outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing services accounted for approximately $29 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019, with approximately $3 billion attributable to medical devices and approximately $26 billion attributable to pharmaceuticals. We believe the following secular trends underpin increasing demand for medical devices and pharmaceuticals: an aging population, increased access to, and demand for, healthcare services globally, growth in healthcare R&D spending and innovation, intensifying regulatory requirements and heightened focus on personal safety. As a service provider to manufacturers, we are not directly exposed to risks associated with reimbursement by public or private payors. We expect that increasing utilization of medical devices, including the equipment and consumables that we sterilize and test, expansion in pharmaceutical development and a growing focus on microbial decontamination (including viruses) will continue to drive growth in our business and provide us the opportunity to expand within our markets.

Our customers depend upon the end-to-end services we provide throughout the lifecycle of their products, from research and development, to product manufacturing and sterilization, as well as ongoing quality control. We often maintain long-term relationships with our customers, which average over a decade across our top 25 customers in 2019. We also benefit from minimal customer concentration, as no single customer accounted for more than 4% of our total revenues in 2019. Given the critical nature of our services, a significant portion of our

 

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revenues is supported by multi-year contracts. More than 90% of our sterilization services revenues in each of the year ended December 31, 2019 and the nine months ended September 30, 2020 were from customers under multi-year contracts. The quality of our service offerings is evidenced by close to 100% renewal rates of our top ten sterilization services customers in 2019 over the past five years. Most of our services are government-mandated and mission-critical, and sterilization services generally represent a small fraction of the total end product cost of medical devices.

Our Network and Expertise

All of the services we provide are highly regulated and require significant technical expertise. To manage these strict regulatory requirements safely and effectively, we have a highly trained and skilled workforce that creates, implements and manages complex quality assurance and environmental health and safety programs, procedures and control systems. We coordinate and communicate with numerous regulatory agencies globally across our businesses on an ongoing and regular basis.

With 63 facilities across our businesses located in 13 countries, our network of global facilities represents a significant competitive advantage in serving the healthcare industry. Our sterilization facilities are often strategically located near our healthcare customers’ manufacturing sites or distribution hubs, which is intended to decrease our customers’ transportation costs and help them optimize their supply chain and logistics. Our laboratory testing facilities are strategically located in order to meet the demanding and often complex needs of our customers. Extensive capital, technical expertise and regulatory knowledge are required to build, maintain and operate facilities like ours. We estimate that one new sterilization facility can cost over $30 million to build, on average, and require extensive and complex licensing approval and regulatory compliance processes. We estimate that the cost to replace the facilities in our network alone could be as high as $1.5 billion or more, in addition to the technical and regulatory requirements.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded net revenues of $778.3 million, net loss of $20.4 million, Adjusted Net Income of $100.4 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $379.9 million. In addition, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020, we recorded net revenues of $601.3 million, net income of $5.9 million, Adjusted Net Income of $77.1 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $306.8 million. For the definition of Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA and the reconciliation of these measures from net income (loss), please see “Summary—Summary Historical Consolidated Financial and Other Data.”

Key Strengths

We are a critical service provider in the healthcare value chain. Our customers rely on us to help ensure that medical, pharmaceutical and food products are safe for healthcare practitioners, patients and consumers. We provide services, including sterility assurance, product safety and effectiveness validation, that our customers need to get their products to market and into the hands of their end-users. Our breadth of services, technical and regulatory expertise, as well as our global scale, enable us to provide these mission-critical services which are necessary for Safeguarding Global Health®. These key strengths make us a global leader in our markets.

 

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LOGO

Comprehensive, global provider of mission-critical sterilization and lab services for the healthcare industry

Our customers value our scale and breadth of services. We offer customers comprehensive sterilization, lab testing and expert advisory services on a global scale. Our customers in the healthcare industry require these services to navigate and operate in an increasingly complex and technical regulatory environment, and we believe we provide a differentiated value proposition to our customers by offering these services in an integrated manner. Our robust sterilization capabilities across all key modalities allow our customers to help ensure the safety of their products prior to delivery to their end-users. We offer over 800 microbiology and analytical chemistry lab tests that, together with our expert advisory services, cover the entirety of the medical device and pharmaceutical product lifecycles to evaluate and ensure that our customers’ products meet regulatory requirements. Our frequent interactions with our customers across multiple facets of their products’ lifecycles give us deep and often early insights into the evolving needs of the manufacturers of medical devices and pharmaceuticals. We have a large, global and strategically-located network of facilities that allows us to deploy the full array of our services to our customers where they need us. These comprehensive and global services make us an essential player across the medical device and pharmaceutical value chain.

Industry leading participant in large and growing markets, underpinned by trends in global healthcare

We estimate that the total global addressable market for terminal sterilization and outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing was approximately $33 billion in 2019. Global terminal sterilization accounted for $3 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019. Global outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing services accounted for $29 billion of our total addressable market in 2019.

Given the mission-critical need for our services within the healthcare industry, our growth historically has been impacted by broader global healthcare trends as opposed to macroeconomic trends. Trends including an aging population and increased access to, and demand for, healthcare services globally, have driven increases in volume demand for medical device and pharmaceutical products. In addition, the need for product enhancement and innovation by manufacturers drives further demand for our services. We believe the sterilization and lab services markets will continue to benefit from these trends, as well as from the increasingly complex regulatory

 

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and compliance environment and heightened focus by consumers on personal safety. As our customers continue to focus on innovation of their own products, they have increasingly relied on our expertise and our outsourced services to help them get their products to market. We believe our ability to provide end-to-end sterilization and lab services makes us a trusted partner to our customers in these large and growing markets.

Sterilization services business with an established and durable customer base supported by long-term contracts provides highly recurring revenue streams

We provide expertise and end-to-end sterilization services for our customers leading to deep, trusted relationships that allow them to meet their global regulatory compliance needs. Our relationships with our Sterigenics and Nordion customers are typically governed by multi-year contracts with cost pass-through provisions, which have resulted in recurring revenue streams and accretive growth. In addition, these customers often look to us as a long-term provider given switching providers can be costly and burdensome. For example, in most circumstances, switching providers requires additional testing, re-validation and FDA submissions and can take anywhere from six months to three years depending upon the class of product. Our relationships with our top ten sterilization services customers in 2019 had an average tenure of over a decade. Our partnerships with these customers have led to close to 100% renewal rates over the past five years.

Expertise and strong track record in highly regulated markets

We and our customers operate in highly complex and regulated markets that require deep knowledge and technical expertise. We believe that the operational discipline that we employ to manage intricate quality assurance and EH&S programs in our own operations gives our customers confidence that we are the best partner to support them in their businesses. For example, we design and install emission controls in our EO facilities that often outperform the regulatory standards that we are required to meet. We also have a skilled team which has developed trusted relationships with numerous regulatory bodies around the world. For example, in 2019 we were selected by the FDA as one of eight participants to move to the next stage of a public innovation challenge to encourage the development of new approaches to medical device sterilization and new strategies to reduce EO emissions. We work closely with our customers, the FDA and others to consider enhanced EO cycle design and processes that would reduce EO emissions from the EO sterilization process to as close to zero as reasonably possible. Our relationships, combined with our thought leadership that is recognized by regulators and customers alike, enable us to inform the process of creating, interpreting and advising on safety standards. They also allow us to educate and advise our customers on current and newly evolving standards and requirements.

Global scale and integrated facility network provide differentiated services to our customers

We have a global network of 63 facilities, consisting of 50 sterilization services facilities and 13 labs, through which we provide services to more than 5,800 customers that have operations in over 50 countries. We have worked to standardize our enterprise resource planning, global quality and EH&S systems to integrate our network of facilities globally. This integration is critical for our customers, who operate globally and look for partners that can provide the same level of service, experience and expertise wherever they operate. We serve many of our sterilization customers at more than one facility, with more than 80% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using more than one of our facilities and more than 50% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using five or more of our facilities in 2019. The capital to replicate the scale of our global facility network, extensive and complex upfront licensing processes and intense regulatory compliance requirements make it extremely difficult for new competitors to easily enter our markets and replicate our scale. The combination of Sterigenics and Nordion makes us the only vertically integrated global supplier of gamma irradiation services, which allows Nordion to more confidently make long-term investments to expand Co-60 supply for the medical products sterilization industry. We believe our global scale, supported by our integrated facility network and core capabilities including deep end market, regulatory, technical and logistics expertise, will allow us to continue to expand our service offerings and customer base.

 

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Experienced management team with proven track record of execution and financial performance

Our management team has significant industry expertise, an unwavering commitment to operational excellence and a proven track record of delivering financial performance. Our culture of accountability runs throughout the entire organization and has contributed meaningfully to our operational achievements and commercial success. Our management team is supported by nearly 2,900 team members around the world who are dedicated to safety and quality, which is why we are a trusted partner to our customers. We have delivered revenue growth every year since 2005, even through significant economic downturns, and have implemented productivity initiatives which have led to margin expansion. Our team brings extensive experience and is highly skilled at recognizing and acting upon market expansion opportunities. Our disciplined approach to M&A has enabled the successful integration of two transformational and seven bolt-on acquisitions over the past six years. In addition, we are disciplined in our capital deployment strategy, which is focused on achieving attractive returns on investment. We pursue capacity expansions that will allow us to consistently grow earnings.

Our Strategy

Our strategy is designed to deliver on our mission of Safeguarding Global Health®, while generating sustainable growth, margins and cash flows for our business:

Drive organic growth by leveraging our leading capabilities, scale and global network

We believe that our established and durable relationships with our diverse customer base, along with the breadth and depth of our service offerings, provide us with a distinct leadership position within the markets that we serve. Our deep experience in sterilization and lab services allows us to be agile in identifying opportunities and decisive in deploying resources towards these opportunities to drive organic growth. We intend to continue capitalizing on our leadership position and integrated global facility network and capabilities to drive our growth by expanding existing customer relationships and attracting new customers. We also seek to accelerate our penetration in high-growth end-markets such as pharmaceuticals.

Deepen our customer relationships with our comprehensive service offerings in sterilization and lab services

Our customers around the world trust us to provide them with the highest quality sterilization and lab services. We are focused on broadening the number and range of services that each of our customers purchase from us by leveraging our core capabilities. We have continued to work on improving our customer interactions in order to deliver a “one company” experience across our sterilization and lab services so that we can further deepen our customer relationships. We provide comprehensive end-to-end services across our customers’ value chains so they can efficiently deliver the safest products to their end-users. We are the only industry player that offers the range of sterilization and lab services at the scale that we do. We strive for the full integration of our global operations to drive consistency across our services and provide our customers with a coordinated and seamless experience, designed to reduce cycle times for our services and improve efficiency. Our offerings facilitate long-term partnerships with our customers and make us an integral part of their product development and commercialization processes. We have multiple decades of deep expertise across key sterilization modalities as well as lab testing services across our customers’ full product lifecycles. We provide over 800 laboratory tests, which we believe is multiple times the number of offerings of our nearest competitor.

Expand footprint to meet the local needs of our growing global customer base

We are focused on aligning our facility network to best meet our customers’ requirements. We believe our valuable insight into our customers’ current and future needs will allow us to efficiently grow our business. Our global presence reflects our commitment to developing our footprint to serve our customers’ supply chains. Our integrated network of facilities is important to our customers as they can rely on the same level of service at each of our facilities, regardless of where they are around the world. We believe our sterilization services customers

 

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are seeking a partner that can operate near their manufacturing sites and distribution centers around the world, as transportation and logistics costs can be meaningful for our customers. In certain circumstances we will invest in projects to build capacity ahead of demand in alignment with the strategic plans of our customers. Our lab services customers are seeking expertise with both international and U.S. regulatory bodies. As our customers expand their global operations, we are well-equipped to expand with them and serve them where they need us.

Invest in technical and regulatory capabilities to enhance our leadership position

Our customers depend on our deep and extensive technical knowhow to get their products to market. We plan to continue to invest in our technical expertise and regulatory knowhow to stay ahead of the dynamic and increasingly complex regulatory landscape in the healthcare industry. Our combination of technical and regulatory expertise allows us to advance the standards of safety for crucial products whose end-users include healthcare practitioners and patients. As customers look to us for expertise, this landscape creates opportunities for us to drive growth in our advisory services offering. We believe that our position as a key industry thought leader makes us a trusted partner for customers as they are developing new products and a respected industry partner for regulators as they are defining industry standards of safety for the future.

Continue our commitment to operational excellence to drive business efficiency and results

Our focus on operational excellence has allowed us to increase capacity utilization and improve working capital, thereby growing our revenues while expanding margins and improving the customer experience. Our commitment to implementing and improving customer-experience enhancing initiatives and internal processes has been a key driver of our strong financial profile to date. Our customer-facing initiatives around cycle time reduction, quality self-service reporting, purchase order accuracy and scheduling efficiencies highlight our rigorous, detail-oriented approach to operational excellence and connectivity with our long-time customers. These initiatives are designed not only to reduce turnaround times and increase predictability of service for our customers, but also to maximize our financial results. We will continue to address our customers’ expectations through our internal processes centered on talent management, quality, EH&S and information technology. We believe that these processes will enable us to continue to deliver growth, profitability and cash generation.

Pursue value-creating strategic acquisitions to expand our addressable market and enhance our global capabilities and footprint

Our disciplined approach to M&A has resulted in our successful track record of identifying, completing and integrating strategic acquisitions into our company and we intend to continue to pursue value-creating strategic acquisitions. We have implemented a disciplined framework to support our acquisition efforts that focuses on quality businesses that are well-regarded by our customers and aligned with our culture of accountability, customer service and operating with integrity. Illustrating this highly disciplined acquisition framework are our two transformational acquisitions of Nordion and Nelson Labs. In addition to these major acquisitions, we acquired FTSI, Gammarad, CBE, REVISS, Toxikon Europe NV, Gibraltar Laboratories and Iotron, which provided geographic, technical and service line expansions. Our acquisition of Nelson Labs expanded our capabilities by creating an enhanced lab services platform to provide microbiology testing within our existing customer end-markets and increasing the number of tests we could provide to our customers. We have a strong foundation to continually evaluate acquisition opportunities that would expand our addressable market and enhance our global capabilities and footprint. We are well positioned to evaluate other acquisitions that leverage our core capabilities while expanding our existing customer relationships. We currently have a significant pipeline of targets, ranging from small, owner operated businesses to larger businesses, and believe that we can identify the appropriate targets and integrate them seamlessly into our business.

Industry Overview

We operate in the terminal sterilization and outsourced lab testing industries. We estimate that the total global addressable market for terminal sterilization and outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing

 

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was approximately $33 billion in 2019. Global terminal sterilization accounted for $3 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019 and we believe it is growing. Global outsourced medical device and pharmaceutical lab testing services accounted for $29 billion of our estimated total addressable market in 2019, with approximately $3 billion attributable to medical devices and approximately $26 billion attributable to pharmaceuticals, and we believe it is growing.

We expect several positive secular trends to drive increased demand for our services, including:

 

   

Favorable demographic trends for healthcare worldwide: Healthcare demand is increasing globally, driven primarily by an aging population and an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. According to data published by the United Nations in 2019, the world’s population is expected to increase by 2 billion people in the next 30 years. In addition, one in six people are projected to be over the age of 65 globally by 2050, up from one in eleven in 2019. United Nations projections from 2019 also show that the number of people aged 80 or older is expected to triple in the next 30 years. These trends are driven by declining fertility and increasing longevity, as well as international migration. In many regions, the population aged 65 is projected to double by 2050, while global life expectancy beyond 65 is expected to increase by 19 years. In March 2020, the CMS estimated that health expenditures in the United States will increase from approximately 18% of gross domestic product in 2018 to approximately 20% in 2028.

 

   

Increased demand for healthcare services in global markets: Stricter healthcare standards coupled with heightened regulatory requirements, greater availability of care and increased patient purchasing power are driving increased demand for healthcare services. In emerging markets, rapid urbanization and rising income, combined with an increase in diseases such as diabetes and cancer, have fueled the growth in access to, and demand for, healthcare services. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has also increased awareness of the importance of decontamination and sterilization. In 2018, the CMS estimated global healthcare costs to be approximately $4 trillion in 2019 and projected they would reach more than $6 trillion by 2027.

 

   

Growth in R&D spending and innovation across healthcare: The pharmaceutical and medical device industries are continuously innovating and developing new products, which we anticipate will increase the demand for sterilization and lab services. Worldwide pharmaceutical R&D spend is forecasted to grow steadily at a CAGR of approximately 3% between 2019 and 2026, reaching $233 billion by 2026 (EvaluatePharma® July 2020, Evaluate Ltd.). In the medical devices market, the global top twenty companies based on R&D spending spent a combined $18 billion on R&D in 2017 (EvaluateMedTech® World Preview 2018, Evaluate Ltd.). This number is expected to grow at a 4% CAGR, reaching approximately $24 billion by 2024 (EvaluateMedTech® World Preview 2018, Evaluate Ltd.).

Sterilization overview

Sterilization is a process used to render a product free of viable organisms that may lead to infectious diseases. Terminal sterilization refers to sterilization of the product in its final packaging and is the last step in production before the product is shipped to the end-users. Sterilization is a highly technical and regulated industry in which companies are subject to environmental, health and safety regulations in the jurisdictions in which they operate. With an increased focus on sterilization and de-contamination, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect the importance of the sterilization industry to continue to grow. In the medical device and pharmaceutical industries, sterilization is a regulatory requirement and essential step in the manufacturing and distribution process. Sterilization services, primarily decontamination, are also critical for the food safety end market, as stricter regulations have been introduced to ensure the safety and quality of products. Due to the technical and regulatory expertise needed for sterilization, outsourced sterilization service providers add significant value to their customers. Medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers often outsource their sterilization needs, as the technical and regulatory expertise and infrastructure required to establish those capabilities in-house can result in significant cost and resource burden.

 

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The three main sterilization technologies are gamma irradiation, EO processing and E-beam irradiation. Other developing or niche sterilization technologies include x-ray, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydrogen peroxide sterilization. In determining the optimal sterilization method for any given product, the type of product, its physical properties and designated use, the type and quantity of bioburden measured on the product, applicable regulatory requirements, how the product will be packaged, as well as the size, weight and density are all considered.

 

   

Gamma irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to gamma rays emitted by Co-60. Gamma rays can penetrate even dense materials to kill microbes. Co-60 is a particularly effective consumable used for sterilizing high-density medical products, such as sutures, surgical tools and stents. The natural decay of Co-60 at approximately 12% a year leads to steady replacement demand for the isotope.

Below is an example of a gamma irradiation facility.

 

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EO processing: A gas sterilization process in which pallets of packaged goods are loaded into a secure chamber that is then injected with EO gas to penetrate the packaging. EO is the most widely used gaseous sterilization agent in the world and has been in use for nearly 90 years. The broad application to a range of medical devices is attributed to the fact that EO is compatible with many materials that cannot tolerate or are degraded by radiation and moist heat sterilization. For this reason, it is commonly the only method available to safely and effectively sterilize procedure kits, PPE and many devices used in cardiac procedures.

Below is an example of an EO processing facility:

 

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E-beam irradiation: A process in which products are exposed to machine-generated radiation in the form of a stream of electrons. E-beam is particularly effective for low density homogenous products such as glass labware. Several medical devices products also rely on E-beam as an effective form of sterilization, including certain types of syringes. In addition to medical device sterilization, E-beam can also be used as an effective technology for materials modification, such as the crosslinking of certain polymers or for enriching the color of gemstones.

Below is an example of an E-beam processing facility:

 

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Other modalities: X-ray irradiation is a process in which products such as medical devices and labware are exposed to machine generated radiation in the form of X-rays for the purpose of sterilization and decontamination. NO2-based sterilization, which offers ultra-low temperature and minimal pressure requirements, can be effective in the sterilization of prefilled syringes, drug-device combination products and custom implants, but is limited as it cannot be used with cellulose materials such as cardboard. Hydrogen peroxide sterilization is a low temperature process that is also incompatible with cellulose material. This technology has historically been focused on competing with autoclaves in the hospital for re-sterilization of surgical tools and devices. Challenges for NO2 and hydrogen peroxide for commercial sterilization also include smaller chamber sizes and load limitations.

Entry into the sterilization business requires significant capital investment, extensive process development and access to supplies of raw materials. The high cost of technology and capital expenditure required, combined with stringent regulations, create high barriers to entry for new outsourced sterilization providers.

We estimate that the global demand for terminal sterilization was approximately $3 billion in 2019.

 

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Lab services overview

Companies use microbiological and analytical chemistry lab testing and advisory services to ensure safety and compliance of key product attributes across the medical device, pharmaceutical and food safety end markets. Microbiology tests help identify and measure the potential risks of microbes to a product and ensure that the quality of the products is maintained. Key testing techniques used include chemical, microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods to quantify, identify and assess the risk of microbes present on samples. Analytical chemistry lab testing is also a critical part of the drug development and the manufacturing process. The qualitative and quantitative results generated from validated analytical testing provide first-hand information as to the content, quality and safety of raw materials, intermediates and finished products. Lab testing is critical for ensuring product quality, patient safety, effectiveness and end-to-end sterility for customers.

Expert advisory services offered in the lab services industry aid customers in navigating the appropriate regulatory standards at any stage of the product life cycle, including supporting them through the regulatory submission process. Medical device manufacturers, who are seeking to maximize efficiency of capital, supply chain, reach and regulatory compliance, are increasingly using lab services providers for testing and advisory services. Technological advancements, rising cases of infectious diseases and increasing stringency and complexity of regulatory standards have continued to drive growth in this market. The high cost of reagents, instruments, equipment and validation requirements create high barriers to entry for emerging competitors.

Laboratory testing must be performed in accordance with applicable standards and regulatory requirements around the world, including those set by the FDA, Health Canada, Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency, Therapeutic Goods Administration and China’s National Medical Products Administration as well as those of standards organizations like the ISO, American National Standards Institute and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (“AAMI”).

We estimate that the global medical device and pharmaceuticals lab testing segment size was approximately $59 billion in 2019. Of that demand, we estimate that the outsourced component, which represents our addressable market in lab services, represented approximately $29 billion of that total.

End markets we serve

We primarily serve the medical device, pharmaceutical and, to a lesser extent, food safety end markets with our sterilization and lab services. Through our Sterigenics brand, we provide sterilization services which are essential to the manufacturing process of medical device and pharmaceutical products such as procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters, wound care products, medical protective barriers including PPE, laboratory equipment and pharmaceuticals. Through our Nordion brand, we are the leading global provider of Co-60 and gamma irradiators, which are the key components in the gamma sterilization process, and we are also a leading supplier of Co-60 sources for stereotactic radiosurgery devices (such as the Gamma Knife®), which are used for certain oncology applications. Through our Nelson Labs brand, we provide microbiological and analytical chemistry lab testing services to medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers which assess the safety, effectiveness and compliance of products necessary for regulatory approvals, commercialization and ongoing product performance evaluations.

In addition, we provide microbial de-contamination and microbial remediation services for the food industry. We currently irradiate a variety of food and food packaging products to guard against harmful bacteria, such as listeria, salmonella, E. coli and other pathogens. We also provide microbial remediation services that stop the progression of damage to products and help make the products safe for distribution.

Medical device

We serve more than 40 of the top 50 medical device companies globally (based on revenue).

The medical device industry manufactures a range of products from simple consumables, such as surgical gloves and other PPE, to more complex devices, such as medical implants, all of which are essential to

 

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maintaining human health. Medical devices and implants are typically in contact or even inserted within the human body, making it even more important that they meet rigorous safety and sterility requirements. There is a diverse mix of established, large companies and fast-growing entrants that fuel innovation and adoption of new technologies in the industry.

Prior to 1950, medical device sterilization was often performed in a medical practitioner’s office or by a hospital’s central sterilization department using steam, dry heat or chemical solutions. Sterilization controls were not rigorous, resulting in healthcare-associated infections, and hospital-acquired infections caused by medical procedures. The advent of single-use, disposable medical devices, which are packaged to maintain sterility up to the point of use, provided an effective solution to this problem and shifted the burden of sterilization from the healthcare system to the medical device manufacturer. The introduction of low-cost biocompatible plastic resins with characteristics appropriate for medical devices and packaging as well as the adoption of EO sterilization as an effective, low-temperature process for sterilizing medical devices accelerated this industry shift. According to the FDA in 2019, more than 20 billion devices sold in the United States every year are sterilized with EO, accounting for approximately 50 percent of devices that require sterilization.

Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals continue to be a key driver for our growth. Today, we serve eight of the top ten global pharmaceutical companies (based on revenue).

Small and large molecule development is regulated by the FDA, and requires a complex and lengthy research and development processes. For approved products, regulatory standards have become increasingly stringent in recent years especially as they relate to the drug manufacturing process and overall supply chain. Pharmaceutical manufacturers look to services providers who are able to satisfy their industry’s rigorous regulatory and quality standards at all stages, from research and development to production and commercialization. Several sector trends have contributed to growth in the pharmaceutical industry, including growth in R&D spending, increased levels of outsourcing by pharmaceutical companies, as well as increased complexity of clinical development and manufacturing given the emergence of large molecule therapeutics.

Food safety

We currently serve several large customers in the food processing industry, such as beverage companies and spice manufacturers.

Food safety testing is a major and necessary step in food processing. Processed foods are the major category of products that are tested for safety and quality profiles. The global food safety testing market is segmented by contaminant type into pathogen testing, mycotoxins, pesticides, residue testing and others. The market is further segmented by technology and application. The rising number of foodborne diseases, adulteration cases and toxicity cases has dramatically increased the need for food safety testing. In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the “CDC”) estimated that one in six Americans get sick from contaminated foods or beverages every year, and 3,000 Americans die annually. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated in 2018 that foodborne illnesses cost almost $16 billion each year. Growing consumer interest in food quality with high technological advancements is further driving the food safety testing market in developed countries.

The CDC, FDA and USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service collaborate closely at the federal level to promote food safety. The CDC works with local, state and federal partners to investigate outbreaks and implement systems to better enhance safety. The U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act (“FSMA”) was enacted in 2011 in response to dramatic changes in the global food supply chain and the rise of foodborne illnesses during the 2000s. FSMA has given the FDA new authorities to regulate the way foods are grown, harvested and processed. The law granted the FDA the ability to recall products and includes seven major rules for ensuring the safety of food supply including good manufacturing practice requirements and laboratory accreditation programs.

 

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Our Businesses

Sterilization Services

Our sterilization services business is comprised of Sterigenics and Nordion.

Sterigenics

We are a leading global provider of outsourced terminal sterilization services and have provided sterilization services for nearly 90 years. We offer a globally integrated platform for our customers in the medical device and pharmaceutical industries, with facilities strategically located to be convenient to their manufacturing sites or distribution hubs.

Terminal sterilization is the process of sterilizing a product in its final packaging; it is an essential, and often government-mandated, last step in the manufacturing process of healthcare products before they are shipped to end-users. These products include procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters, wound care products, medical protective barriers, including PPE, laboratory products and pharmaceuticals.

Sterilization Services

We offer our customers a complete range of terminal sterilization services, primarily using the three major commercial terminal sterilization technologies: gamma irradiation, EO processing and E-beam irradiation. We continue to invest in and develop our capabilities and our current methods of sterilization, as well as explore new alternative modalities and technologies. Our primary terminal sterlization technologies include:

 

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See “Industry Overview—Sterilization overview” for more detail about these technologies. We provide gamma irradiation services at 23 of our facilities, EO processing services at 17 of our facilities and E-beam irradiation services at eight of our facilities.

In addition to the three major technologies, we invest in alternative modalities to serve our customers in niche applications. X-ray irradiation is a process in which products such as medical devices and labware are

 

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exposed to machine-generated radiation in the form of X-rays for the purpose of sterilization and decontamination. X-rays are similar in performance to gamma rays and are useful for processing certain materials due to the high penetration capabilities of X-ray. We utilize X-ray irradiation at one of our sterilization facilities for bio-hazard reduction for the United States Postal Service, or USPS. In addition, we are also investing in NO2-based sterilization, which has been effective in the sterilization of prefilled syringes, drug-device combination products and custom implants.

Sterilization Applications

Sterigenics primarily provides sterilization services for medical device manufacturers and the pharmaceutical industry. Sterigenics also provides decontamination services for the food industry. Additionally, Sterigenics provides various advanced applications for other organizations and companies including the USPS and semiconductor manufacturers. Our customers select the sterilization method that meets the needs of their products and requirements of regulators and we deliver sterilization services according to their customer-specific protocols. In most cases, customers are serviced from more than one facility.

 

   

Medical device sterilization. Medical device sterilization is a regulatory requirement in many jurisdictions and an important and last step in the manufacturing of healthcare products such as medical protective barriers, including PPE, procedure kits and trays, implants, syringes, catheters and wound care products. A broad range of single-use, prepackaged medical products, as well as certain consumer products, are required by government regulations to be sterile, or meet certain acceptable microbial levels when sold. These products are not manufactured in a “sterile” or “clean” environment and are thereby inhabited by potentially harmful microbes. Products must be treated as part of the production process before shipment to customers, either in-house by the manufacturer or by an outsourced sterilization provider, such as Sterigenics.

We have developed a consultative approach with medical device manufacturers that expands our service offerings beyond core product sterilization, as we believe they want value-added solutions from their outsourced sterilization partners that reach beyond the traditional scope of sterilization. We offer customers a comprehensive selection of advisory services in design, testing, production and supply chain management for sterile healthcare products before, during and after the sterilization process to ensure and improve a product’s speed to market and compliance with regulatory requirements.

 

   

Pharmaceuticals. We provide comprehensive outsourced terminal sterilization solutions to help our customers in the pharmaceutical industry meet regulatory requirements. Our sterilization expertise covers a variety of pharmaceutical drug products, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, pre-filled syringes, drug components, excipients and primary packaging and components.

In addition, pharmaceutical companies are starting to market disposable delivery devices, such as auto-inject devices for epinephrine, which are combined medical device and pharmaceutical products. As these disposable delivery devices are subject to both medical device regulations and pharmaceutical regulations, we believe these companies are looking to leading outsourced sterilization providers like us for our expertise in sterilizing these complex devices. We believe that the complementary capabilities and expertise in our Nelson Labs business make Sterigenics an attractive sterilization partner to customers in the pharmaceutical industry. We can provide a full suite of services to help them throughout key stages in the lifecycle of these complex products.

 

   

Food and agricultural products. We provide microbial reduction and microbial remediation services for food and agricultural products. Generally, in a microbial reduction process, products are exposed to lower levels of treatment than in a sterilization process. This process is not intended to render a product free of viable organisms but rather to reduce their number. In connection with our microbial reduction services, we treat a wide array of products such as spices, herbs, animal feed and food packaging materials to address product liability concerns of our customers related to the health of the consumer or to extend shelf life. We currently irradiate a variety of food and food packaging products, ranging from

 

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orange juice to steaks, to guard against harmful bacteria, such as listeria, salmonella, E. coli and other pathogens. Microbial reduction and irradiation offer producers and processors a method to safeguard against bacteria from the time of packaging of their products to the time they reach consumers. We also provide microbial remediation services that stop the progression of damage to products and help make the products safe for distribution.

 

   

Commercial, advanced and specialty applications. We provide a wide range of advanced applications services for industrial materials to customers that use ionizing radiation to modify materials or products. The advanced applications sterilization industry represents over $1.7 billion of demand, with an outsourced value of approximately $350 million. It is comprised of a large number of distinct segments that can be addressed using our services for radiation processing. Materials that undergo advanced application processes include products such as power semiconductors, polymers and gemstones. In addition, we utilize our ionizing radiation services to provide bio-security services to the USPS by treating and protecting the mail against unwanted pathogens and biohazards. We believe we are the only provider of this service to the USPS. We also treat commercial products, such as cosmetics, with our microbial reduction services. In Canada and Europe, where recreational cannabis, medical cannabis, or both, are legal, we provide commercial gamma and E-beam irradiation services for decontamination of cannabis.

Sterigenics Customers

Sterigenics serves approximately 2,800 customers. We follow extensive validation procedures with our customers to determine the optimal sterilization method for each product, and to validate that the chosen method will achieve the sterility requirement for that product. Once a sterilization process has been validated, we adhere to our customers’ process specifications to treat their product.

Sterilization services are an essential element in our customers’ manufacturing processes but generally represent a small fraction of the total end-product cost of medical devices. We believe this means that our customers choose our services based on quality and consistency of service rather than solely on the cost. These deep, tenured customer relationships are supported by multi-year contracts with cost pass-through provisions, which have resulted in recurring revenue streams.

For many products, our customers are required to include the specific facility used to validate a product’s listing in the FDA (or foreign equivalent) product registration and are typically required to re-register if they switch facilities, making switching locations for a particular product a difficult and expensive process for our customers. This dynamic contributes to low customer churn and long-term relationships within our business.

In addition, Sterigenics has achieved high historical customer retention and renewal rates—Sterigenics has close to 100% renewal rates of its top ten customers over the last five years, and an average tenure of over a decade with its top 25 customers over the last five years—and minimal customer concentration. We have also introduced innovative, advanced processing systems for outsourced sterilization that are designed to enhance operating efficiencies, improve turnaround times and provide for greater processing flexibility without sacrificing quality, consistency or reliability.

Sterigenics Competition

We compete globally with Applied Sterilization Technologies, a segment of STERIS plc, as well as other smaller or regional outsourced sterilization companies. In addition, some manufacturers have invested in in-house sterilization capabilities. We also face competition from other technologies, such as chemical cross-linking of polymers. Our services generally compete on the basis of the quality of technology and services offered, level of expertise in each of the major sterilization methods, level of expertise in the applicable regulatory requirements and proximity to customers.

 

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Sterigenics Suppliers

We primarily purchase our supply of Co-60 sources, the key input into the gamma sterilization process, from Nordion. Our supply of Co-60 sources is at times impacted by the global availability of Co-60. Our supply of EO is sourced from various suppliers around the world. There is more than one supplier of EO in most of the countries in which we operate; however, in the United States, there is a single supplier for EO to our industry. We have not historically experienced any supply disruptions and our U.S. supplier has redundant production facilities to help ensure reliable EO supply. We also have a license in the United States to distribute EO to self-supply should the need arise and we determine to make the necessary investments.

Sterigenics Facilities

With 48 facilities in 13 countries, our global network of sterilization facilities represents a significant competitive advantage. We serve many of our sterilization customers at more than one facility, with more than 80% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using more than one of our facilities and more than 50% of Sterigenics’ net revenues attributable to customers using five or more of our facilities in 2019. Extensive capital, technical expertise and regulatory knowledge are required to build and maintain facilities like ours. We estimate that one new facility can cost over $30 million to build, on average, and require extensive and complex licensing approval and regulatory compliance processes. We estimate that the cost to replace the facilities in our network alone could be as high as $1.5 billion or more, in addition to the technical and regulatory requirements.

Our global facility network, built and expanded over several decades, is strategically located convenient to customers’ manufacturing sites and distribution hubs or routes. For many of our customers, the location of our facilities is important because transportation and logistics costs can be meaningful. We also employ proprietary technology to provide customers with increased visibility into our processes. Sterigenics GPS enables customers to monitor the sterilization process in real-time and better manage their supply chain. These features improve the accuracy and visibility of customer order information and quality data, which in turn provide enhanced transparency to regulatory agencies around the world, further enhancing our reputation as a company with regulatory expertise. We are focused on continuing to leverage advanced technology and service offerings to better serve customers, and we believe our capital and resource commitment in this area drives customer loyalty and retention.

By leveraging a global operating system, we drive operational excellence across our network of facilities in order to achieve high levels of safety, quality, operating efficiency and customer satisfaction to provide a uniform customer experience. All facilities are either ISO 13485 certified, ISO 9001 certified or both, as well as licensed and registered in all necessary jurisdictions to comply with government required regulations.

Nordion

Nordion is the leading global provider of Co-60 sources and production irradiators, which are the key components in the gamma sterilization process. Co-60 is a radioactive isotope that emits gamma radiation that sterilizes items by killing contaminating micro-organisms. Production irradiators are the units that house the Co-60 sources within a gamma sterilization facility. We estimate that gamma sterilization, which is a critical component of the global infection control supply chain, represents approximately 30% of single-use medical device sterilization worldwide. Nordion’s customers include both outsourced contract sterilizers, including Sterigenics, as well as medical device manufacturers that sterilize their products in-house.

We provide our customers with high quality, reliable, safe and secure Co-60 source supply at each stage of the source’s life cycle. We support our customers with handling and processing of Co-60, recycling of depleted sources and global logistics enabled by our licensed container fleet. We also provide regulatory and technical service expertise to improve the risk profiles and enhance effectiveness of gamma processing operations. Without this radioactive material, gamma sterilization would not be possible on the global scale at which it is used today, and we are integral to our customers’ operations due to highly coordinated and complex installation processes.

 

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Nordion has a long history of innovation in gamma technologies. Nordion designs, installs and maintains production irradiators. Nordion developed the first Co-60 based tele-therapy unit for cancer treatment in 1951 and the first panoramic irradiator in 1964. In addition to selling Co-60 sources for sterilization purposes, Nordion also sells high specific activity Co-60 (“HSA Co-60” or “medical Co-60”) used in stereotactic radiosurgery as a radiation source for oncology applications, specifically in the Gamma Knife® and other similar applications. Today, Co-60 is a critical part of treatment for brain and other cancers because it is noninvasive, reliable, effective and safe to use.

Co-60 Production Process

Nordion’s primary product is Co-60 sources. Co-60 is a radioactive isotope used in radiation sterilization that decays naturally at a rate of approximately 12% annually. Co-60 is produced by placing cobalt-59 (“Co-59”), the most common form of cobalt, into a nuclear power reactor to be activated.

The Co-60 production process requires high purity Co-59. Co-59 is produced globally, primarily as a byproduct of nickel and copper mining, and is used in a variety of industrial applications. The Co-59 used for sterilization accounts for a small portion of overall Co-59 demand. Co-59 is compressed into “targets,” which are pellets and slugs suitable to be activated into Co-60. These targets are then encapsulated and delivered to be installed in nuclear reactors. Depending on the type of reactor and the location of the Co-59 in the reactor, the conversion process can take between 18 months and five years. Once the conversion to Co-60 is complete, the targets are extracted from the nuclear reactor while the reactor is shut down and shipped to Nordion to be processed into Co-60 sources to be sold to customers. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Company—Safety risks associated with the use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials, such as EO and Co-60, may result in accidents or liabilities that materially affect our results of operations.”

Nordion Products

Co-60 is sold to customers by its level of radioactivity, measured in curies. Our customers typically buy low specific activity Co-60 (“LSA Co-60”) for industrial sterilization use and HSA Co-60 for medical use. At our Ottawa facility, we receive and process the targets to form the final Co-60 source product with the desired amount of radioactivity for each customer order. The Co-60 sources undergo stringent and sophisticated quality assurance testing at our facility. The final product is then placed in large regulatory licensed steel and lead shipping containers, which Nordion uses to transport Co-60 to our customers.

We transport the Co-60 sources via proprietary lead and steel containers that are licensed to meet all applicable international shipping requirements. We believe we have the most extensive expertise in Co-60 logistics. There is a significant regulatory burden in the production, management and transportation of fleets of containers of Co-60 sources. Our transportation routes and carriers are highly controlled, and we provide regular and comprehensive training for employees and carriers who are involved in moving the Co-60 globally.

We also design, install and maintain production irradiators, which include radiation shielding, a series of conveyors and control systems that are designed to expose products to the correct gamma radiation dosage in a safe and efficient manner. A production irradiator is the infrastructure that houses the Co-60 sources and makes up a part of a sterilization and warehousing facility. We have designed and built over 100 of the estimated 290 large scale production irradiators active globally. Our installation, physics and engineering teams are comprised of highly trained professionals who provide fast and ongoing technical support from source installation to emergency response.

We also offer our customers a for-fee spent Co-60 source return service for depleted Co-60 sources that have reached end of their useful life, which is often 20 or more years. We also have a source recycling program that extends the useful life of individual slugs from the decayed product up to an additional 20 years, pairing them with new slugs to make new Co-60 sources.

 

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Nuclear Reactor Operators

Given the timeline required to produce Co-60, forecasting supply and working closely with nuclear power reactor operators to manage the amount and timing of shipments represents an important business capability of Nordion.

The amount of Co-60 supply is ultimately determined by the number of nuclear reactors that are capable of producing Co-60 at a given point in time. Our access to Co-60 tends to vary on a quarterly basis, due primarily to the nuclear reactor maintenance schedule, length of time required to convert Co-59 into Co-60, the limited number of facilities that can generate Co-60 in an economically efficient manner, and the timing of the removal of Co-60 from reactors. While short-term variability in Co-60 supplier delivery timing can result in variability in our financial performance in one or more fiscal quarters, we work with multiple reactor sites that operate on consistent and predictable discharge and harvest schedules over the long-term.

Nordion currently has access to Co-60 supply at multiple nuclear reactors pursuant to multi-year contracts with three operators that cover 14 reactors at four generating stations, that extend to dates between 2024 and 2064, with our largest supplier under contract until 2064. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Company—We depend on a limited number of counterparties that provide the materials and resources we need to operate our business. Any disruption in the availability of, or increases in the price of, EO, Co-60 or our other direct materials, services and supplies, including as a result of current geopolitical instability arising from U.S. relations with Russia and related sanctions, may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.” The substantial majority of our Co-60 material has historically been produced under multi-year contracts with nuclear reactor operators in Canada and Russia. Nordion provides Co-59 targets to its Canadian and Russian reactor suppliers, manufactured to proprietary specifications customized for each supplier. In addition, we also acquire a portion of our Co-60 supply from reactors that produce Co-60 in Russia, China and India.

The vertical integration of Nordion and Sterigenics has allowed us to more confidently make meaningful long-term investments to expand Co-60 supply for the medical products sterilization industry. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Trends and Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations.” Currently, approximately 9% of nuclear reactors worldwide are the type of reactors that have been capable of producing commercial quantities of Co-60. In December 2018, we acquired patents that may allow us to significantly increase our sourcing options for Co-60 and further expand the market for gamma sterilization. Additionally, in February 2020, we announced a collaboration with Westinghouse Electric Company to further develop the technology to produce Co-60 at reactors in the United States. If successful, we believe this collaboration could further diversify our supply with reliable U.S. domestic partners and encourage the implementation of this patented technology at other reactors.

We continue to work closely with Canada Deuterium Uranium (“CANDU”) reactor operators to monitor refurbishment schedules, and to evaluate opportunities for an increase in Co-60 production from both Russian and CANDU reactors. We are exploring partnerships with other CANDU reactor operators in Canada and Romania that would involve investing in their reactor infrastructure to enable long-term production of Co-60.

From time to time we also purchase Co-60 on the spot market and will continue to explore opportunities for supply in the global market.

Nordion Customers

Nordion supplies products and services to approximately 40 customers, including medical device manufacturers and gamma sterilization service providers. Co-60’s consumable nature results in annual natural decay at an approximately 12% annual rate, which creates stable, recurring demand as customers must purchase incremental supply in order to satisfy ongoing needs. We are integral to our customers’ operations due to highly coordinated and complex installation and service processes that require expertise in handling and shipping radioactive material as well as our deep knowledge of the relevant regulatory and compliance requirements. Customer relationships are typically governed by multi-year supply agreements.

 

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One of Nordion’s customers is Sterigenics, which competes with several of Nordion’s other gamma sterilization service customers. When we acquired Nordion in 2014, we established information barriers between Nordion and Sterigenics with regard to certain customer information, which are still in place today, and we have certain agreements with Nordion’s customers requiring these barriers. These barriers constrain our ability